Gerson Digital : Germany I

RKD STUDIES

7.7 Dutch Artists in Tirol and Bohemia

The Dutch and Flemish moved of course preferably to the capital of the country, as opportunities to earn money were greatest there. But the ‘provinces’ are not all together neglected. Adriaen Bloemaert (after 1609-1666) e.g. was employed by the Benedictine Order in Salzburg after his Italian journey. His paintings are still to be found there in the present day university building [1-2].1 That it is a painter from Utrecht should not surprise us, when we consider the shared faith with Catholic Austria. The local landscape artists went mainly to Italy, where they studied Poussin and Salvator Rosa. That is also true for Anton Faistenberger I (1663-1708) [3], although there are also landscapes by him in the style of Berchem [4].2 Of Ulrich Glantschnigg (1661-1722) we know some ‘grotesque conversation pieces in the taste of the Dutch school’ [5],3 which on the other hand are more connected with the Northern Italians, or with the Swiss Clipper-Todeschini respectively, than with the Dutch masters themselves.4

1
Adriaen Bloemaert
Christ as judge with saints, c. 1637
canvas, oil paint 330 x 200 cm
Salzburg, Paris-Lodron-Universität Salzburg

3
Anton Faistenberger (I)
Landscape after a thunderstorm,
canvas, oil paint 74 x 84 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere

2
Adriaen Bloemaert
The Vrigin Mary, in the background Christ in Gethsemane, c. 1637
canvas, oil paint 150 x 130 cm
Salzburg, Paris-Lodron-Universität Salzburg

4
Anton Faistenberger (I)
Arcadian landscape with two hunters on horseback, c. 1700
canvas, oil paint 66,5 x 95,5 cm
lower right : Faistenberger
Innsbruck, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, inv./cat.nr. GEM 185

5
Ulrich Glantschnigg
The adoration of the shepherds, dated 1716
canvas, oil paint 100 x 145 cm
lower right : VLIRCH GLANTSCHNIGG P. 1716
Innsbruck, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, inv./cat.nr. GEM/157

In Bohemia there are not many traces of Dutch influence. What Wenzel Hollar (1607-1677) learned in the Netherlands, was not very fruitful for his home country, as he left Bohemia prematurely to go and work in England. The period of 1636 till 1644, that was so eventful for the development of Dutch art, he spent in Holland.5 It is not exceptional that he copied some compositions by Rembrandt [6-7].6 It is remarkable, however, that his drawing style [8-9] was largely influenced by the landscape draftsmen Jan van de Velde II and Willem Buytewech.7


6
Wenzel Hollar after Rembrandt
Naked woman on a mound, dated 1635
paper, etching 86 x 69 mm
upper left : Rheinbrand inu: Amstelodami, / WHollar fec: 1635 [WH in ligature]
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-1920-2657

7
Wenzel Hollar after Rembrandt
Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh (1612-1642), dated 1635
paper, etching, 1st state 67 x 54 mm
upper left : Reinbrand, inu: / Amstelodami,
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-OB-11.465

8
Wenzel Hollar
View of the Zuiderkerk, Amsterdam, from the Northwest, dated 1634
paper, pencil ? x ? mm
topside, left of the middle : WH
Manchester, library John Rylands University Library (The University of Manchester Library)

9
Wenzel Hollar
View of Leiden, dated 1634
paper, pencil, brown and red-brown wash ? x ? mm
lower right : WH 1634
Manchester, library John Rylands University Library (The University of Manchester Library)


Since the days of Roelant Savery hardly any Dutch landscapist made it to Bohemia. Only in 1698/99 we find Johann Gottlieb Glauber (1656-1703) there.8 About the same time Justus van den Nypoort (c. 1625-after 1692) from Utrecht came to this country and to Olomouc from Vienna. He etched a series of 33 views of Kremsier [10].9 In these years a local landscape art awakens, that harks back to Savery and the Flemish artists of the beginning of the century. Johann Jakob Hartmann (before 1658-after 1736) and Wenzel Lorenz Reiner (1689-1743) belong to it. The former trained himself mainly on the example of Jan Brueghel I [11-14], while the latter, whose activity already belongs to the 18th century, also assimilated the style of the Italianate Dutchmen [15-16].10 The Antwerp painter Jan Pieter van Bredael II (1683-1735) was in Prague in 1706, where he worked for Prince Eugene. He also contributed to the dissemination of the Dutch-bucolic landscape style with his pictures painted in the manner of Berchem.

10
Justus van den Nypoort after Georg Mathias Vischer published by Urban Franz Augustin Heger
View of the Archipiscopal Palace in Kroměříž, c. 1691
paper, etching 153 x 225 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1898,0725.8.1976


11
Johann Jakob Hartmann
The four elements: Fire,
copper, oil paint 53 x 76 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere

12
Johann Jakob Hartmann
The four elements: Earth,
copper, oil paint 53 x 76 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere

13
Johann Jakob Hartmann
The four elements: Air,
copper, oil paint 54 x 77 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere

14
Johann Jakob Hartmann
The four elements: Water,
copper, oil paint 54 x 77 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere


15
Wenzel Lorenz Reiner
Roman cattle market with a group of beggars, after 1720
canvas, oil paint 73,5 x 98 cm
Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Albertinum, inv./cat.nr. 2075

16
Wenzel Lorenz Reiner
Roman cattle market with a roan that carries vegetables, na 1720
canvas, oil paint 73,5 x 98 cm
Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Albertinum, inv./cat.nr. 2076


Much that seems to go back on Dutch influence at first glance, can be explained by the artistic correlation with Venice. This is so with Karel Škréta (1610-1674), who Houbraken already counts to the ‘Bent’ [17-18].11 Fetti and Strozzi had been more important for his development than the Dutch masters of the Bent. His pupil Tobias Pock (1609-1683) from Konstanz, who settled in Vienna in 1640, derived in his courtly paintings many individual traits from the Dutch-Venetian genre painters à la mode [19].12 Occasionally he fell back on Elsheimer and the Mannerists. A conversation piece in the style of Batholomeus van Bassen and Frans Francken II (Munich, Depot) is attributed to Johann Michael Bretschneider (1656-1729), who worked in Prague and Vienna [20-22]. The work is indistinguishable from the Netherlandish paintings of this group.13

19
Tobias Pock
Self portrait of Tobias Pock (1609-1683) with his family, c. 1669-1670
canvas, oil paint 124 x 198 cm
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze, inv./cat.nr. O 17229

17
Karel Škréta
Portrait of Humprecht Johann Count Czernin of Chudenice (1628-1682), before 1660
canvas, oil paint 149 x 116,5 cm
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze, inv./cat.nr. 19123

18
Karel Škréta
Portrait of a man with blond hair, 1640s
canvas, oil paint 114,5 x 87 cm
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze, inv./cat.nr. O 10

20
Johann Michael Bretschneider
Picture Gallery, c. 1715
canvas, oil paint 190 x 285 cm
Bamberg, Staatsgalerie in der Neuen Residenz, inv./cat.nr. 6224

21
Johann Michael Bretschneider
Picture gallery, dated 1702
canvas, oil paint 193 x 340 cm
location unknown : Joannes Michael Bretschneider fecit [] / Bretschneyder tabulas quasdam e peristilio pragense penniculo imitavit 1702 / 5556
Neurenberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, inv./cat.nr. Gm 603

22
Johann Michael Bretschneider
Picture Gallery, c. 1715
canvas, oil paint 222 x 338 cm
Bamberg, Staatsgalerie in der Neuen Residenz, inv./cat.nr. 6223

23
Philipp Christian Bentum
The victory of Christianity on the non-believers, dated 1737
oil paint ? x ? cm
lower left : P.C. de Bentum fecit Anno 1737.
Leubus (Niederschlesien), Kloster Leubus

Mattheus Terwesten (1670-1757) had been in Prague temporarily14 and Philipp Christian Bentum (c. 1690-after 1757), who came from the Netherlands, worked in Bohemia and Silesia for a longer period [23-25].15 Terwesten no longer is a pure exponent of Dutch painting, and Bentum even less so. His Roman schooling defines his style.


24
Philipp Christian Bentum
Portrait of Jan František Krakowsky of Kolowrat, c. 1725-1730
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
Rychnov nad Kněžnou, Rychnov Château, inv./cat.nr. RK 200/377

25
Philipp Christian Bentum
Portrait of Ana Josefa of Liebstein born Colloredové, c. 1725-1730
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
Rychnov nad Kněžnou, Rychnov Château, inv./cat.nr. 101


With the still-life painters we are more lucky. Let us keep in mind that Rudolf II already acquired a flower piece and a book with flowers and animals by De Gheyn and that his court painter Roelant Savery also was a skillful flower painter. The Savery tradition revives at the end of the century in landscape painting as well as in still-life. The best example for this is Johann Adalbert Angermeyer (1674-1740),16 who was taught by the Flemish schooled Swiss painter Johann Rudolf Bys (1660-1738) [26-27]. Naturally, his technique is that of the late flower- and fruit painters like Jan van Huijsum and Abraham Mignon, but his compositions do not transcend the simple facts of Balthasar van der Ast and Roelant Savery [28-30].17 Apart from these flower paintings he also painted some hunting still-lifes in the ‘deceptive manner’ against a light backdrop, which he adopted from the specialists Cornelis Norbertus Gijsbrechts, Fromentiou, Ferguson and others [31-32].18


26
Johann Adalbert Angermeyer
Bouquet in a glass vase in a niche, dated 1719
copper, oil paint 17,8 x 13 cm
lower center : J. A. ANGERMEYER F: Ao 1719
Private collection

27
Johann Rudolf Bys
Bouquet flowers in a vase in a stone niche, dated 1693
copper, oil paint 17,8 x 13 cm
lower center : I.R. Bÿs. Fe: Pragæ. Ao. 1693.
Galerie Koller (Zürich) 2004-03-26, nr. 3022


28
Johann Adalbert Angermeyer
Bouquet of flowers in a vase with animals, dated 1704
panel, oil paint 50 x 34 cm
lower right : L.A. Angermayer. F. Ao 1704
Vaduz-Vienna, Liechtenstein - The Princely Collections, inv./cat.nr. FE 787

29
Roelant Savery
Bouquet in a glass vase with a lizard, a grasshopper, and a mouse on a woorden ledge, dated 1612
panel, oil paint 49,5 x 34,3 cm
lower left : ·R · SAVERY · 1612 ·
Vaduz-Vienna, Liechtenstein - The Princely Collections, inv./cat.nr. GE789

30
Johann Adalbert Angermeyer
Bouquet in a vase with seashells and a lizard, dated 1705
copper, oil paint 29 x 18,3 cm
lower center : J.A.ANGERMEYER Ao 1705
London, art dealer John Mitchell Fine Paintings

31
Johann Adalbert Angermeyer
Bouquet in a vase with seashells and a stag beetlel, dated 1705
copper, oil paint 29 x 18,3 cm
lower center : J.A.ANGERMEYER Ao 1705
London, art dealer John Mitchell Fine Paintings

32
Johann Adalbert Angermeyer
Still life with dead little birds, dated 1702
canvas, oil paint 60 x 45 cm
lower left : JA Angermeyer Fe.,
Cheb, Gallery of Fine Arts in Cheb, inv./cat.nr. O735

33
Johann Michael Bretschneider
Still life with small death birds, c. 1702
canvas, oil paint 60 x 45 cm
location unknown : J.M.B.
Cheb, Gallery of Fine Arts in Cheb, inv./cat.nr. O 736

34
Johann Adalbert Angermeyer
Dead birda with a pocket knife, before 1723
panel, oil paint 49,5 x 34,5 cm
Liberec, Regional Art Gallery in Liberec

35
Maximilian Pfeiler
Still-life with pomgranate and lemns,
canvas, oil paint 38 x 47 cm
Schwerin, Staatliches Museum Schwerin, inv./cat.nr. G 644

Maximilian Pfeiler (documented 1683-1721) [35-36] and Johann Caspar Hirschely (1697/8-1743) [37-38] continued the school of Angermeyer. Futhermore Pfeiler had been in Italy, where he got acquainted with the conception of the Neapolitan still-life [39].19 The Fleming J. Bouttats [40-43] is said to have painted in the manner of Melchior d’Hondecoeter in Prague c. 1700.20

36
Maximilian Pfeiler
Still life of fruits and a bowl with loysters, dated 167[.]
canvas, oil paint 36,3 x 48,2 cm
lower right : Max Pfeiler 167[.]
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze, inv./cat.nr. VO 11070

37
Johann Caspar Hirschely
Still life of flowers,
unknown, oil paint ? x ? cm
Liberec, Regional Art Gallery in Liberec

38
Johann Caspar Hirschely
Still life with game in a niche, dated 1732
panel, oil paint 61,5 x 43 cm
left center : J.C. Hirschely / faciebat 1732
Augsburg, Städtische Kunstsammlungen Augsburg, inv./cat.nr. 12737

39
Johann Caspar Hirschely
Vanitas still life in a landscape, dated 1727
tinplate, oil paint 18 x 23,5 cm
lower right : JCH 1727
Liberec, Regional Art Gallery in Liberec, inv./cat.nr. 76


40
J. Bouttats
Hunting still-life with goose, birds and a hare,
canvas, oil paint 133 x 145 cm
lower center : J. Bouttats F.
Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, inv./cat.nr. M.Ob.856

41
J. Bouttats
Chicken pen with approaching bird of prey, dated 1696
canvas, oil paint 142 x 177 cm
location unknown : Bouttats 1696
Rychnov nad Kněžnou, Rychnov Château, inv./cat.nr. RK 640/618

42
J. Bouttats
Cockerel in a landscape,
canvas, oil paint 72,5 x 88,5 cm
lower center : J. Bouttats
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2012-07-04 - 2012-07-05, nr. 192

43
J. Bouttats
Cockerel in a landscape,
canvas, oil paint 72,5 x 88,5 cm
lower right : J.Bouttats.F.
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2012-07-04 - 2012-07-05, nr. 192


Notes

1 [Gerson 1942/1983] Tietze/Martin 1914, p. 141-142. ill.

2 [Gerson 1942/1983] Andreas Faistenberger I (1588-1652) imitated the mannerists and Rubens (painting in Copenhagen) [RKDimages 288558).

3 [Gerson 1942/1987] Biermann 1914, vol. 1, ill. 272; vol. 2, p. xvi.

4 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Glantschnigg: Andergassen/Kronbichler et al. 2013.

5 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Actually, Hollar was in Holland in 1634 (Turner 2010). Between 1644 and 1652 he was mainly in Antwerp (Saur 1992-, vol. 74 [2012], p. 268).

6 [Gerson 1942/1983] Copies after Rembrandt’s etchings B. 347 and B. 148 from the years 1634-1635, so from before the time Hollar was in Holland. Further a copy after van Vliet’s imitation Rembrandt B.21 and 22, that Hollar brought together on one plate as Democrit and Heraclit. Ciartes had used these heads also! [Van Leeuwen 2018] The last print Gerson mentions, RKDimages 288897, is not attributed to Hollar anymore but is a copy by Richard Gaywood. According to Turner (and Martin Royalton-Kisch) Hollar possibly made the two prints after Rembrandt’s etchings (without help and permission of the master) out of hope for a possible employment as a reproductive printmaker for Hendrick Uylenburgh (Turner 2010, p. 77-78).

7 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Also Turner states that far more influential to Hollar was not the figurative work of Rembrandt but the Dutch landscape tradition, as practiced or promoted by such artists as Claes Jansz. Visscher and Jan van de Velde II. Hollar already copied prints of the latter when he was working in Strasbourg for the publisher Jacob van der Heyden in 1628 or 1629 (Turner 2010, p. 78).

8 [Van Leeuwen 2018] There is a reference in the annual account of 1696 of the sources of the painters’ guild of the Lesser Town of Prague that probably concerns Johann Gottlieb Glauber (fol. 2r): 'Empfang / Anno 1696 / Den 2. Januarii zahlt herr Glober landschaftmahler sein erlaubnus geld mit … 9 fl.' (Heisslerová 2016, p. 259; communication Stefan Bartilla). See also § 7.3.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Justus van den Nypoort: § 7.3.

10 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Reiner: Preiss 2013.

11 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 2, p. 144; on Škréta: Stolárová/Vlnas 2010.

12 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On the painting by Pock in the National Gallery of Prague: Sevcík 1997.

13 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Bretschneider: Sronek 1984. We could not find a painting in Munich (‘Musikalische Unterhaltung’, mentioned as well in Thieme/Becker 1907-1957 and Saur 1992-. Maybe it is confused with the work in Bamberg since 1821 (RKDimages 288577).

14 [Van Leeuwen 2018] No source mentions a stay in Prague by Mattheus Terwesten, although it is possible that he passed by Prague on his way from Vienna to Berlin in 1697. On Terwesten in Vienna: § 7.2.

15 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Van Bentum: Lejmann 2009.

16 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Angermeyer: Seifertová 2015. In 2018 the Regional Art Gallery Liberec organized an exhibition dedicated to Angermeyer.

17 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations in Biermann 1914, nos. 101-102; Prague 1938, nos. 211-218; Auction Oppenheim, London (Christie’s), 26 May 1933, no. 147.

18 [Gerson 1942/1983] Paintings in Bamberg.

19 [Gerson 1942/1983] On Hirschely: Frimmel 1905. ‘Dutch’ paintings are to be found a.o. in Landshut, Bamberg and Munich (Depot).

20 [Gerson 1942/1983] Prague 1938, no. 270. [Van Leeuwen 2018] J. Bouttats often is confused with Jean Baptiste Bouttats, who moved from Antwerp to England in the 1720s. J. Bouttats possibly was a son of the Antwerp engraver Gerard Bouttats (born c. 1630), who worked in Vienna (Willigen/Meijer 2003, p. 48). If so, J. Bouttats may have been born in Vienna. Most of his works are found in Bohemia and Silesia. He belonged to the group of artists who worked in 1687 for Wenzel Albert Graf Sternberg on the decoration of Troja castle in Prague. According to Bergner the 19 paintings in Rychnov Castle (listed there since 1796) possibly are decorations by Bouttats orginally painted for Troja (Bergner 1909, col. 109). For the Gerson project the RKD cooperated with the Kolowrat family; part of the collection is entered in the RKD database.

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