Gerson Digital : Germany I


7.4 Landscape Painters in Vienna

Dutch landscapists were needed in Vienna as well, especially 'topographers’ were sought after. Elias Meganck ( Ϯ1686) from Amsterdam arrived there c. 1660, from whom we can still see three landscapes,1 and a certain Reinier Meganck (1637-1690) was a provider of paintings to the Liechtenstein family.2 Justus van den Nypoort (documented in Vienna in 1686)3 was a landscapist, who we will meet later on in Bohemia. Folpert van Ouden Allen (1635-1715) became court painter to Leopold I in 1675. He was commissioned to make depictions of the capital cities of the latter’s provinces, which engaged him from 1683 till 1703. He produced View of Vienna (Städtisches Historisches Museum in Vienna) [1-2] and a drawing of 1661, a view of Vienna also, in the Louvre.4 He was the teacher of Johann Graf (1654-1710) in Vienna. Graf however worked more in the style of Jan Breughel and Jan Griffier [3].5

Folpert van Ouden Allen
View of Vienna
unknown, oil paint ? x ? cm
Vienna, Wien Museum

Johann Graf
Mountain landscape with travelers
panel, oil paint 48 x 63,5 cm
lower right : J Graf
Lochem/The Hague, art dealer S. Nijstad

Folpert van Ouden Allen
View of Vienna from the West, dated 1661
paper, brush, washed, India ink, over lead point 177 x 289 mm
lower left : weenen stadt / [...] ALLEN F. 1661
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 23.334

The history painter Matthäus Mannagetta (1630-1680) once deigned to paint a ‘Temple Grotto’ [4], for which he must have sought advice from Abraham van Cuylenborch, Rombout van Troyen and the like.6 Carl Ferdinand Fabritius (1637-1673) is Viennese, despite his Dutch name; his only known picture (in Vienna) is to be characterized as a Both-imitation [5]. It is said that his teacher, the ‘Flemish‘ Johann Ludwig Kegl, had made him aware of the examples of the Dutch masters and especially of Jan Griffier.7 Johann Gottlieb Glauber (1756-1703), the brother of the better-known Jan Glauber, belongs to the same circle. His classicist landscapes (after the example of Poussin!), touch upon the late Flemish concept, which people loved at court. He must have come to Vienna in the 1680s and then worked much in Bohemia and Silesia.8

Matthäus Mannagetta
Prayer in a tempel grotto, dated 1656
copper, oil paint 47 x 64 cm
: M. Mannagetta / fecit 1656
Gebrüder Heilbron (Berlin) 1913-04-10 - 1913-04-11, nr. 63

Carl Ferdinand Fabritius
Mountainous landscape
canvas 57 x 69 cm
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv./ 446

Josef Orient
Ideal landscape with fair
canvas, oil paint 55 x 97 cm
Vienna, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, inv./ 5122

Josef Orient (1677-1747), who had been taught in Holland and was active in Vienna since 1702, revived the Flemish tradition [6] in the same way as Graf.9 In the elegantly and carefully drawn landscapes of Franz de Paula Ferg (1689-1740), a pupil of Graf and Orient, the Dutch element is stronger again than in those of his teachers, although the little figures are often modelled after French examples. He emerges as a descendant of Herman Saftleven and Jan Griffier [7] and especially in his landscapes with ruins he ties on to Bartholomeus Breenbergh, with figures in the taste of Nicolaes Berchem (fig. 82) [8]. We also know genre paintings by him, which take a Cornelis Droochsloot as example [9]. As he went to Franconia and Saxony in 1718 and settled in 1720 in London, his art was quickly lost for the Austrian provinces. However, as a link to the Dutch fashion in 18th-century art, he is of a certain importance for more than one region.

Franz de Paula Ferg
Mountainous river landscape with a ferry crowded with figures beneath a castle, after 1724
copper, oil paint 31,5 x 42 cm
lower left : FV
Sotheby's (New York City) 2010-01-28, nr. 319

Franz de Paula Ferg
Travellers in Italianate landscape, before 1720
canvas, oil paint 43,5 x 55 cm
lower right : FV
Neumeister (München) 2015-07-01, nr. 365

Franz de Paula Ferg
Landscape with church
copper, oil paint 24 x 34 cm
lower center : F. Ferg
Saint Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage, inv./ 2708


1 [Gerson 1942/1983] Bredius 1915-1921, vol. 5, p. 1309-1312. [Van Leeuwen 2018] Bredius (and Gerson) wrongly identified Elias Meganck with the Flemish painter/art dealer Reinier Meganck who lived and worked in Vienna in the 1670s and 1680s as a landscape painter. Elias Meganck was a military man with a painting collection and was the brother-in-law of the landscape painter Bartholomeus Appelman (1628/29-1686/87).

2 [Gerson 1942/1983] Frimmel 1920, p. 160. [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Reinier Meganck’s activity as a supplier of paintings to Karl Eusebius von Liechtenstein (1611-1684) in 1672-1673 and 1677-1684: Haupt 1998, nos. 1036, 1053, 1073, 1265, 1272, 1282, 1295, 1307, 1340, 1359, 1380, 1581 (44), 1590, 1651, 1652 (12), 1684, 1700, 1702 (1-3), 1708, 1709 (9), 1710 (2,4,5), 1715 (1,7, 15,26, 28), 1722, 1763 1780 (2).

3 [Van Leeuwen 2018] On 26 October 1686, a child of his died, 4 years old. He lived in the Wipplingerstrasse, in the house of the sculptor Benedict Sondermayer (Hadjecki 1905-1907, 25 [1907], p. 13).

4 [Gerson 1942/1983] Lugt 1929-1933 , vol. 2 (1931), p. 9, no. 543, ill.

5 [Van Leeuwen 2018] The name of Jan Brueghel is misplaced here: Graf did work in the tradition of Jan Griffier, Herman Saftleven, Philips Wouwermans and Matthijs Schoevaerdts.

6 [Van Leeuwen 2018] Gerson must have seen this image in the Witt Library, London. The representation is also close to works by Dirck Stoop, who might have passed Vienna on his way back from Rome in 1645-1646. On the subject of grotto paintings: Rosen 2013.

7 [Gerson 1942/1983] Sigismund 1905. [Van Leeuwen 2018] On Carl Ferdinand Fabritius: Pieper 2006.

8 [Van Leeuwen 2018). On J.G. Glauber, see also § 7.6.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2018] It is very unlikely that Orient was taught in the Netherlands: he was a pupil of Anton Faistenberger I (1663-1708). On Orient: De Goede-Broug 2013.

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