Gerson Digital : Germany I

RKD STUDIES

5.6 Nuremberg

Painting in Nuremberg presents the same picture as art in Frankfurt. Here we also have a local tradition that is affected by Flemish and Dutch artists in the beginning of the 17th century.1 Incidentally, we meet again some Frankfurter acquaintances in Nuremberg. Already in the 16th century Nicolas de Neufchâtel (1527-after 1573) from Hainaut had introduced Flemish portrait painting in the city of Nuremberg [1].2 Lorenz Strauch (1554-1636) took on this direction [2], while the works of his son Georg Strauch (1613-1675) reveal distinct Dutch characteristics [3-5].3 The already mentioned Matthäus Merian II worked for some time in Nuremberg in the second half of the 1640s [6-7].4

1
Nicolas de Neufchâtel
Double portrait of a money changer and his wife, c. 1561-1567
panel, oil paint 93,3 x 103,5 cm
Christie's (London (England)) 1995-07-07, nr. 64

2
Lorenz Strauch
Self portrait, dated 1614
panel, oil paint 43,5 x 52,5 cm
Neurenberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, inv./cat.nr. Gm429

3
Georg Strauch
Portrait of an unknown woman, dated 1664
panel (oak), oil paint 23 x 18 cm
left center : G/Strauch Pinx / Ano 1664.
Neurenberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, inv./cat.nr. Gm1454

4
Georg Strauch
Portrait of Georg Philipp Harsdörffer, poet and councelor in Strassburg and Nuremberg (1607-1658), dated 1651
paper, ink wash 177 x 142 mm
Neurenberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum

5
Georg Strauch
Trompe-l'oeil with a picture of Diana and Actaeon under a folded sheet of paper, dated 1639
paper, pen, washed, heightened in white 87 x 135 mm
bottom (positional attribute) : [...]r Gedächtnus geschrieben inn Nürnberg den 29 November anno 1639. / Georg Strauch Maller.
Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, inv./cat.nr. KdZ 7984

6
Matthäus Merian (II)
Portrait of a patrician from Nuremberg, dated 1645
canvas, oil paint 91 x 78 cm
on the back : Matth: Merian J:ior 1645
Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, inv./cat.nr. 67/29

7
Matthäus Merian (II)
Portrait of a patrician from Nuremberg, c. 1645
canvas, oil paint 90,5 x 78 cm
Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, inv./cat.nr. 67/29

The little known Georg Walch (active 1632-1654) once made an engraving after a painting of Pieter de Bloot [8],5 while his elder fellow citizen Conrad Ammon (1575-after 1623) used the popular print after Abraham Bloemaert's The Love of Gods [9] for the composition of a painting [10].6 Paul Juvenel I (1579-1643), whose landscapes essentially are based on Flemish painters and Elsheimer [11], also painted church interiors after the Steenwijck’s recipe, who settled in Frankfurt [12]. Bartholomäus Wittig (c. 1614-1684) favoured genre paintings with candlelight, that he derived from Wolfgang Heimbach and the Dutch [13-14].7

8
Georg Walch after Andries Both
The poor painter and his family,
paper, etching 328 x 246 mm
lower center : Paulus Fürst Excudit/ G. Walch Sculpsit' And two lines of Latin: 'Ars mendica gemit ... et arma iacent' And a German paraphrase: 'Wo krieges-Unfal hat die Uberhand genommen/ Da geht die Kunst nach brodt wie hoch sie nur gekommen
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1876,0510.573

9
Nicolaes de Bruyn after Abraham Bloemaert
The Golden Age, dated 1604
paper, copper engraving, 1st state 688 x 444 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-OB-16.119

10
Conrad Ammon after Abraham Bloemaert
The Golden Age, dated 1615
unknown, oil paint ? x ? cm
: Conrad Ammon 1615
Whereabouts unknown

11
Paul Juvenel (I)
The baptism of Christ, dated 1609
panel (lime), oil paint 98 x 88 cm
lower left : 160.9. PAVLVS. IVVENEL. FACIEBAT
Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1667

12
Paul Juvenel (I)
Interior of a church with Christ and the woman accused of adultery, dated 1632
panel, oil paint 46,5 x 53 cm
lower right : Paulus Iuvenel / Faciebat / 1632
Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, inv./cat.nr. WRM 2672

13
Bartholomäus Wittig
The Jacob's Ladder,
canvas, oil paint 96 x 76 cm
Pommersfelden, Schloss Weissenstein der Grafen von Schönborn, inv./cat.nr. 635

14
Wolfgang Heimbach
Banquet by night, dated 1640
copper, oil paint 66 x 144 cm
lower left : W H P 1640
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1619

Most important for the German-Dutch relations however is the artist Joachim von Sandrart I [15].8 We already encountered him in many towns in Germany, Holland and Italy without taking time to consider his painted work as a whole. Sandrart became a pupil of Gerard van Honthorst in 1623. Here in Utrecht he also met Rubens, who generously praised his Diogenes.9 Enriched with what he learned in Utrecht he started to travel in 1627. After a short visit to England he went to Italy, where he stayed for seven years. Both here and there he stayed in close contact with the circle of Dutch painters. In Rome he was a close friend of Pieter van Laer (1599-in or after 1642) and it was he, who sent for the Dutch engravers Cornelis Bloemaert,Theodor Matham and Reinier van Persijn from Paris to work of the publication on the gallery of Marquess Guistiniano.10

15
studio of Joachim von Sandrart (I) after Joachim von Sandrart (I)
Self-portrait, after 1644
canvas, oil paint 116 x 85,5 cm
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./cat.nr. 1763

Therefore it is not surprising to find him again in Amsterdam between 1637 and 1642, this time as a celebrated and popular portrait painter. His best known work from this time is The company of Captain Cornelis Bicker and Lieutenant Frederick van Banchem, waiting to welcome Maria de' Medici, dowager queen of France, September 1638, that was intended – as was Rembrandt’s Nightwatch ̶ for the large room of the Kloveniersdoelen (Amsterdam) [16]. This portrait and others from this period are related to the works of the Rembrandt pupils (Govert Flinck and Jacob Backer), who belonged to the same generation. He strove for the elegance of Bartholomeus van der Helst, which he did not fully achieve, but he also stayed true to his Utrecht training.

During his second stay in Holland he started to work on his series of the 12 months (now in Schleissheim), that he finished in Munich in 1642/44 [17-28]. In these paintings the echoes of the Utrecht school can be traced, albeit in the classicist form of someone like Hendrick Bloemaert (compare fig. 24/77).11

16
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
The company of Captain Cornelis Bicker and Lieutenant Frederick van Banchem, waiting to welcome Maria de' Medici, dowager queen of France, September 1638, 1640
canvas, oil paint 343 x 258 cm
: Het Corporaalschap der Heeren van Swieten. Geschildert door Sandrart / De Vaan van Swieten wacht om Medicis te onthalen / maar voor zo groot een ziel is dan een markt te kleen / En 't oog der Burgerij te zwak voor zulke Straalen / Die zon van 't Christenrijk, is vleesch, nog vel, nog been / Vergeef het dan Sandrart, dat hij haar maakt van steen. Vondel.
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. SK-C-393


17
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
January, dated 1642
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
lower left : J. Sandrart f./1642
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 356

18
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
February,
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 357


19
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
March, dated 1642
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
center right : 1642 Sandrart
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 358

20
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
April, 1643 dated
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
lower left : J. Sandrart fecit/1643
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 359


21
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
May, 1642-1643
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 360

22
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
June, dated 1642
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
lower right : J. Sandrart f. 1642
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 361


23
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
July, dated 1642
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
lower left : J. Sandrart f./1642
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 362

24
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
August, c. 1642-1643
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 363


25
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
September, c. 1642-1643
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
center : Joa. Sandrar...
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 364

26
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
October, c. 1642-1643
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 365


27
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
November, dated 1643
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
lower left : Joachimo Sand-/rart fecit 1643
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 366

28
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
December, dated 1643
canvas, oil paint 149 x 123 cm
left center : 1643/december/15
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./cat.nr. 367


Since c. 1643-1645 Sandrart lived on his estate Stockau [29] and in Munich. In 1670 he sold Stockau to Baron Franz von Mayer († 1699) and went to Augsburg.12 Finally in 1674 he remarried to a lady from Nuremberg, where he lived until his death in 1688. He painted many things all over Southern Germany [and Austria]:13 there are works by his hand in Bamberg [30], Eichstädt [31], Würzburg [32], Regensburg [33], Linz, Lambach, Salzburg and Vienna, where he was called by Emperor Ferdinand III in 1651 to paint the imperial family.

Sandrart not only absorbed the Dutch way to design a composition, but also mastered the fluent Dutch painting technique. However, it is not suprising that he copied motifs from Rubens in large altarpieces (for example in Lambach [34]). Even the memories of Van Dyck and Titian that awakened again a late work (The Upbringing of Jupiter, Nuremberg [35]) were nothing unusual at the time. More striking is that the Flemish influence also becomes manifest in some of his late portraits, although they do not show a completely Flemish character, but a peculiar mix of styles. This style transformation can be observed in the works of all German artists who were trained in Holland ̶ in some more, in others less. In the protestant North in the 1660s Jürgen Ovens painted Flemish-like church paintings, Christopher Paudiss radically changes his style in Southern Germany and also Michael Willmann's Silesian works are anything but simple, biblical pictures of the Rembrandt school.

Sandrart’s own collection encompassed not only paintings by Rubens, Van Dyck and other Flemish artists, but also works by Pieter van Laer, Jan Asselijn, Cornelis van Poelenburch, Jan Both, Jacob Marrel, Willem van Bemmel and possibly by Johann Liss, whom he met in Venice. Most of them later ended up in the collection of Franz von Mayer in Munich and Stockau; others were sold in Amsterdam. Finally we would not have done justice to the importance of Sandrart if we would not pay attention to his Teutschen Akademie (1675).14 This publication has been an important source for our research throughout Europe and has contributed much to make Netherlandish art and Netherlandish artists known in Germany.

29
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
Mansion and estate of Stockau at Paar river in former duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg, nowadays a part of Bavaria, 1675
paper, copper engraving ? x ? mm
upper center : 1 Beschloßen Hoff-marck STOCKAU. 2 Der Adeliche Siz . 3 Das Brau-haus. 4 die Gestüt-Stallung. / 5 Vieh-Stallung. 6 allerleij Mühl-werk. 7 Wührts-haus. 8. Blum = Würk- und Baum-garten. / 9 Hoff-marcks- Wiesen. 10 Feldungen. 11 Fluß Baar. 12 Reichershoffen. 13 IngolStatt.
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Den Haag)


30
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
The decapitation of John the Baptist, dated 1651
canvas 252 x 140,5 cm
lower center : J. Sandrart. de Stockau / f: 1651
Bamberg, Diözesan-Museum (Bamberg), inv./cat.nr. 88

31
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
The glorification of St. Walburga, c. 1664
canvas, oil paint 770 x 480 cm
Eichstätt (Bayern), Kloster St. Walburg


32
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
The assumption of Mary, c. 1646-1647
canvas, oil paint 350 x 185 cm
Würzburg, St. Killiansdom

33
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
The martyrdom of Saint Emmeram, c. 1666
canvas, oil paint 570 x 380 cm
Regensburg, St. Emmeram


34
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
The crucifixion, c. 1680
canvas, oil paint 280 x 200 cm
Lambach (Austria), Benediktinerstiftskirche

35
Joachim von Sandrart (I)
The upbringing of Jupiter, c. 1671-1678
canvas, oil paint 156,5 x 121,5 cm
lower right : Sandrart
Neurenberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, inv./cat.nr. Gm443


A nephew of Joachim von Sandrart, Jakob von Sandrart (1630-1708), who in old literature is always confused with his famous uncle, was an engraver and draughtsman [36]. From about 1640, he dwelt a while in Holland for his education. In 1656 he settled down in Nuremberg, where he was active as an art dealer and engraver.

Another nephew of Joachim, Johann von Sandrart (1627-1699) painted a Passion series in the small church of Idstein in the Taunus, together with his uncle and the Flemish artist Michael Angelo Immenraet (1621-1683) [37-38].15 Nothing is left here of any Dutch training. The models, the compositions and even the technique derive from the Southern Netherlands and Rubens was the godfather here.16

36
Bernhard Vogel (1683-1737) after Johann Leonhard Hirschmann
Double portrait of Jakob von Sandrart (1630-1708) and Regina Christina Eimmart (1636-1708), 1708-1716
paper, copper engraving 171 x 243 mm
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Library, inv./cat.nr. II 4745


37
Michael Angelo Immenraet and Johann von Sandrart
Interior of the Unionskirche or St. Martin in Idstein, 1673-1678
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
Idstein, Unionskirche

38
Johann von Sandrart
The twelve year old Jesus amidst the doctors in the temple, 1673-1678
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
Idstein, Unionskirche


Lastly we mention the engraver Caspar Luyken (1672-1708), who worked in Nuremberg between 1689 and 1705 [39], and the portrait painter Johann Kupezky (1666/7-1740), with whom we will deal in another chapter, developed a fruitful activity here from the early 1720s on [40].17


39
Caspar Luyken
Neurenberg with the Wasserturm and the Henkersteg, right in the background the Karlsbrücke and Lorenzi Kirche,
paper, pen in brown ink, brown wash 150 x 330 mm
Neurenberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, inv./cat.nr. Hz St.N. 166652/646b

40
Johann Kupezky
Double portrat of Karl Benedikt Geuder von Heroldsberg (1670-1744), judge in Nuremberg, and his son Adam Rudolph Karl, c. 1724-1728
canvas, oil paint 116,5 x 103 cm
Private collection


Notes

1 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Chipps Smith 1990-1991.

2 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Peltzer 1926.

3 [Gerson 1942/1983] Images in Mahn 1927; Biermann 1914, no. 490; in Berlin is a drawing of a ‘trompe-l’oeuil’ (Kupferstichkabinett 9784, dated 1639).

4 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Merian left for Italy in the autumn of 1643, together with merchants from Nuremberg; on his way home in 1645 he again made a stop in Nuremberg (Nieden 2002, p. 27, 29).

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] Nagler 8 after drawing in the British Museum, Hind 1. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Now attributed to Andries Both. Engraved in reverse by Pieter Schenck (print entitled "pictor inops") and with modifications by Georg Walch (website British Museum).

6 [Gerson 1942/1983] Painting in the collection Woog-Meyer, Paris (Photo Witt Librabry, London). [Van Leeuwen 2017] The preporatory drawing for the print by De Bruyn is in the Graphische Sammlung im Städelschen Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt (RKDimages 61623). The print was also copied in reverse in Frankfurt in 1608 by Johann Theodor de Bry (British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1458235).

7 [Gerson 1942/1983] The Banquet by Night in Vienna (no. 1619) in now attributed to Heimbach. [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Wittig: Tacke et al. 2001, p. 626-628.

8 [Gerson 1942/1983] On Sandrart: Thieme/Becker 1907-[1950, vol. 29 (1935), p. 397-398; Sandrart/Peltzer 1925, p. 21; Kutter 1907;  Peltzer 1925. [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Sandrart: Klemm 1986; Gerchow/Schreurs 2006; Kok 2013, p. 103-140; Klemm 1986; Sandrart.net. For the Gerson project, most of Sandrart’s oeuvre has been documented in RKDexplore by Lianne Mostert (Bachelor trainee Leiden University, 2016), based on the RKD collections and Sandrart.net.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On this painting (not known anymore): http://ta.sandrart.net/en/artwork/view/85 .

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] On his paintings in Utrecht style: Gerson 1942/1983, p. 146.

11 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Sandrart made the whole series in Amsterdam in 1642-1643 (Kok 2013, p. 130). The illustration Gerson included (RKDimages 286059) is rejected as a work by Sandrart; a new attribution in de the circle of Adriaen van Nieulandt is proposed (Klemm 1986, p. 328).

12 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson wrongly stated 1660. On May 9, 1670 Sandrart sold the estate to his friend the councilor Franz von Mayer († 1699), a Bavarian diplomat at the Regensburg Reichstag and influential politician at the Munich court. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_Stockau_(Reichertshofen) .

13 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Although he visited about all of these places, most of were not painted on the spot, but in his workshop, until 1670 in Schloss Stockau.

14 [Gerson 1942/1983] Sandrart/Peltzer 1675/1925. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Scholarly annotated online edition: Sandrart/Kirchner et al. 1675/2008-2012 (http://ta.sandrart.net/de/).  On Franz von Mayer, see also § 6.6; Wellnhofer 1936.

15 [Gerson 1942/1983] Luthmer 1914, p. 157. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Werner 1973; http://ta.sandrart.net/-artwork-3994 .

16 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson wrongly speaks here of a fresco technique, but the series is executed in oil on canvas.

17 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson 1942/1983, esp. p. 333-334.

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