Gerson Digital : Germany I


4.3 Smaller Courts and Towns

The ‘fine’ genre painting in the manner of Godefridus Schalcken became known in central Germany through Justus van Bentum.1 He already practiced finepainting in the east, in Königsberg. His pupil Dietrich Ernst Andreae accompanied him to Hannover and worked indepently in Braunschweig from 1717-1719 [2].2

But Duke Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1633-1714) [1], who as a youngster had drawn and modelled himself, wanted something better.3 In 1709 he managed to acquire a Mary Magdalene [3] by the knighted Adriaen van der Werff, for which he richly rewarded the artist with money and precious gifts.4 Nowadays we have more appreciation for Jan Steen’s Marriage of Tobias and Sarah which was owned by the duke already in Houbraken’s time (Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum) [4].5

Hyacinthe Rigaud
Portrait of Duke Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1633-1714)
canvas, oil paint 81,3 x 64 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 528

Dietrich Ernst Andreae
Self-portrait of Dietrich Ernst Andreae (c. 1680-1734) in green dressing gown, between 1717-1719
canvas, oil paint 78 x 64 cm
lower right : Andre
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 636

Adriaen van der Werff
The penitent Saint Mary Magdalene, 1708-1709
panel, oil paint 29 x 21 cm
Whereabouts unknown

Jan Steen
The marriage of Tobias and Sarah: the signing of the Contract of Marriage(Tobit 7), c. 1667-1668
canvas, oil paint 131 x 172 cm
lower left : JSteen
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 313

Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem
The deluge (Genesis 7:17-24), dated 1592
panel, oil paint 74 x 92 cm
center right : CCvH f 1592
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 170

Anton Ulrich had brought together a considerable collection of old masters in his pleasure palace Salzdahlum, which was ready in 1694.6 Many of them can now be found in Braunschweig. An inventory of 1697 already lists paintings by Cornelis van Haarlem [5], Daniel Vertangen [6], Jan Lievens [7], Philips Wouwerman [8], Richard Brakenburgh [9] and Jacob de Heusch [10].7 In 1710 the collection had grown significantly with paintings by Abraham Bloemaert [11], Pieter Lastman (the two well-known pictures in the Braunschweig Museum) [12-13], Rembrandt (five, two of them copies) [14-18],8 Jan Victors [19], Gerard de Lairesse [20], Gerard Dou [21], the above mentioned Jan Steen and the famous Braunschweig Johannes Vermeer [22].

Daniel Vertangen
Landscape with nymphs
canvas, oil paint 71,5 x 97,8 cm
lower right : D. Vertangen
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 194

Jan Lievens
Bust of a bearded grey-haired man, c. 1629
panel, oil paint 54 x 42 cm
center right : L
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 243

Philips Wouwerman
The ascension of Christ, c. 1660
canvas, oil paint 85 x 68 cm
lower left : PHILS
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 306

Richard Brakenburgh
Smoking and drinking company in a village inn, dated 1689
canvas, oil paint 63,5 x 75 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 329

Jacob de Heusch
View of the Ponte Rotto in Rome, dated 1696
canvas, oil paint 59,8 x 106 cm
center right : JDHEUSCH.f.1696
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 410

Abraham Bloemaert
The adoration of the Christ-child by Mary and Joseph, c. 1622-1625
canvas, oil paint 233 x 198 cm
lower right : A. Bloermaert fe.
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 428

Pieter Lastman
David brings the ark into Jerusalem and makes music, while the people rejoice (2 Samuel 6:17), dated 1618
panel, oil paint 79 x 117 cm
lower right : Pietro Lastman fecit anno 1618
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 208

Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene: Noli me tangere, c. 1651
canvas, oil paint 65 x 79 cm
lower right : Rembrandt.f. 165[.]
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 235

Pieter Lastman
The meeting of Nausicaa and Ulysses: Ulysses, almost naked, comes out of the bushes; Nausicaa and her companions are startled at the sight, dated 1609
panel (oak), oil paint 87 x 124 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 210

Rembrandt or studio of Rembrandt
Portrait of a man, dated 1632
panel (oak), oil paint 63,5 x 47,3 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 232

Rembrandt or studio of Rembrandt
Portrait of a woman, c. 1633
panel (oak), oil paint 63,6 x 47,3 cm
center right : Rembrandt.f: / .1633
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 233

after Rembrandt
The circumcision of Christ, in or after 1646
canvas, oil paint 97,8 x 72 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 241

after Rembrandt
The Entombment of Christ, after 1639
canvas, oil paint 105 x 73 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 240

Gerard de Lairesse
Achilles discovered among the daughters of Lycomedes, c. 1675-160
canvas, oil paint 81 x 104 cm
lower right : GL [intertwined]
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 287

Jan Victors
Samuel anointing David in the presence of his father Jesse and his brothers (1 Samuel 16:13), dated 1653
canvas, oil paint 180 x 201 cm
lower left : Jan. Victors. fc. 1653
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 255

Gerard Dou
Self portrait with family portrait, c. 1650-1655
panel, oil paint 27 x 23 cm
lower right : GDov
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 303

Johannes Vermeer
Young Woman with a Wine Glass, c. 1659-1662
canvas, oil paint 77,5 x 66,7 cm
left center : IVMeer
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 316

Already before the middle of the century Anton Ulrich’s successor, Duke Karl I, added a large number of high quality Dutch paintings to the collection, among others the Landscape with a thunderstorm by Rembrandt [23] and the most important painting of the gallery, Rembrandt’s Portrait of a family [24].9 The collection in Salzdahlum ̶ Magnus Quiter was appointed as the gallery inspector ̶ could not enjoy the same fame as the art cabinet of Johann Wilhelm, or even as the Cassel gallery, but absolutely deserves to be mentioned. Incidentally Duke Anton Ulrich’s predecessors had already come into the possession of all kinds of paintings through inheritance and marriage, most of them, of course, portraits (Johannes Mijtens [25], Wolfgang Heimbach [26], Johann Tilemann).10

Landscape with a thunderstorm, c. 1638-1640
panel (oak) 51,3 x 71,5 cm
lower left : Rembrandt.f.
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 236

Portrait of a family, c. 1665
canvas, oil paint 126 x 167 cm
bottom left of the middle : Rembrandt. ft
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GG 238

Johannes Mijtens
Portrait of Friedrich Landgrave of Hesse-Eschwinge (1617-1655), c. 1655-1657
canvas, oil paint 96 x 82 cm
Eichenzell (Fulda), Schloss Fasanerie, inv./ B 3305

Wolfgang Heimbach
Portrait of Queen Christina of Sweden (1626-1689), dated 1660
copper, oil paint 43 x 32 cm
lower left : Wolffg. Heimbach Conterfeijer fecit [1]660 / ANNO. 1660
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ GK 709

Finally we have to say a few words about Lippe-Detmold. Count Simon VI zur Lippe (1554-1613) sent his court painter (Johann Tilemann?) in 1602/3 to Holland to buy paintings for Emperor Rudolph II. A correspondence about his acquisition of paintings by Hendrick Goltzius [27] has come down to us, but no works by Johann Tilemann, who came from Bremen, have survived [28].11 They probably looked similar to the paintings of the Dutch Mannerists, which, in general, goes for painting in Germany at the time.12 That would not change until the next generation: Tilman's son, Simon Peter Tilman, who spent several years in the Netherlands, painted ‘Dutch’ still-lifes and ‘Utrecht’ history paintings, as we have seen.13

Hendrick Goltzius
Christ sitting on the cold stone between two angels, dated 1602
copper, oil paint 51 x 34 cm
lower left : HG 1602
Providence (Rhode Island), Museum of Art - Rhode Island School of Design, inv./ 61.006

Johann Tilemann
Portrait of Simon VI zur Lippe (1554-1613), dated 1600
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
upper left : SIMON graf zur Lippe/ [...........]/ 1600
Detmold, Schloss Detmold

Hans Hinrich Rundt
Portrait of Ludwig Graf zu Solms, dated 1704
canvas, oil paint 80 x 62 cm
on the back : Rundt fec. 1704
Private collection

Hans Hinrich Rundt, court painter and state architect of the principality of Lippe, was a pupil of Gerard de Lairesse in Amsterdam in 1684. His portraits of the princes of Lippe [29-30] are comparable in style to the family members of the house of Anhalt by Abraham Snaphaen. It is the late Netscher style, that cannot be considered anymore as purely Dutch. 14

Hans Hinrich Rundt
Portrait of of Amalia Luise Wilhelmine, Countess of Lippe (1701-1751), dated 1702
canvas, oil paint 88 x 76 cm
on the back : Rundt Ao. 1702
Detmold, Lippisches Landesmuseum

Active in Göttingen and Münden was the woodengraver Ludwig Büsinck (1599/1602-1669), whose dated works are between 1629 and 1636. His large altarpiece in Göttingen [31] hardly shows Dutch influence, but his colourful woodcuts are reminiscent of the Utrecht Caravaggists [32]. His son Wilhelm Ludolf Büsinck (1635-1673) was in Amsterdam and Utrecht around 1660.15 It is remarkable that the products of artists who worked in the towns, such as Büsinck, reflect the local German tradition of the 16th century much stronger than contemporary court art.

Ludwig Büsinck
Christ on the cross, 1636
oil paint 300 x 400 cm
Göttingen (Hessen), Sankt Paulus Kirche (Göttingen)

Ludwig Büsinck
Flute player, c. 1629
paper, wood engraving 278 x 211 mm
upper left : G. Lalleman. Inven: /L. Büsinck scul:
Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin


1 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Van Bentum: § 2.13.

2 [Gerson 1942/1983] About his style, see p. 235 [= § 2.13].

3 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Duke Anton Ulrich as a collector: Klessmann et al. 1983; Luckhardt et al. 2004.

4 [Gerson 1942/1983] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 388-400; Weyerman1729-1769, vol. 4, p. 80. Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach (Uffenbach 1753-1754, vol. 1, p. 335) admired in 1709 in Salzdahlum no more than ‘two small very rare paintings’ by Van der Werff, ‘… one is the sinner Mary Magdalene, for which the duke paid two thousand Thaler: the other Simon: both are no larger than half a cubit’. On p. 329-330 and 337 some additional remarks on the gallery in Salzdahlum. In Halmstädt Uffenbach saw the juvenilia drawing and prints by the duke. The library in Wolfenbüttel has an anonymous painting, representing the duke in his study. The style of this work is completely Dutch in the manner of Dou and Toorenvliet. [Van Leeuwen 2017] RKDimages 482601 (representing Anton Ulrich’s father, August II of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel); Wenzel/Matthey 2012, p. 331-343, no. 93, ill.

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 16.

6 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Jonckheere 2004. On Salzdahlum: Wittig 2005.

7 [Gerson 1942/1983] A view of the ‘Ponte Rotto’ in Rome, that probably was painted in 1696 on commission of the duke.

8 [Van Leeuwen 2017] About the pendant portraits and the attribution to Rembrandt by the Rembrandt Research Project, see RKDimages 32016 and 32016.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2017] According to Klessmann 1983, the paintings were probably already purchased by Herzog Anton Ulrich, although they were mentioned for the first time at Schloss Salzdahlum only in 1737. See also Fink 1967.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fink 1931, p. 37 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson refers to Fink’s article on the collection of Duke Ferdinand Albrecht I, who was not a predecessor of Herzog Anton Ulrich I but his half-brother. Indeed some of his paintings ended up in Salzdahlum, but at a later stage (communication Paul van Kooij, June 2016).

11 [Gerson 1942/1983] Rapiamus 1887; Kiewning 1903; Hirschmann 1916, p. 35 ff. [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Count Simon’s travels to the Netherlands: Schmitz-Kallenberg 1906. Only two paintings can be attributed to Johann Tilemann with certainty: those of Simon VI and his wife Elisabeth von Schaumberg; the attribution to Tilemann of a St. John the Baptist in the Nicolai church in Lemgo is uncertain (Lüpkes 2014, p. 20-21, ill.).

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] See what was mentioned on Van Achten, p. 210 [§ 2.1]. Compare also the decorations of the Stadthagen Mausoleum of Anton Boten (RKDimages 286042 and 286043) and the paintings on the parapets of the choir of the main church in Wolfenbüttel that made use of Goltzius’ prints.

13 [Van Leeuwen 2017] See § 2.6.

14 [Gerson 1942/1983] Images in Biermann 1914, no. 177-178. [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Rundt: Kiewning 1927; Hammann 1974; Salesch 2003, also § 2.3 and 4.2. On Snaphaen: § 2.14.

15 [Gerson 1942/1983] Stechow 1933-1934; Stechow 1938; Stechow 1939. The small art collection of Lippe benefitted the relationships of the princes with Dutch relatives. Those inherited the art and portrait collection of Burg and Batestein near Vianen (Van Meurs 1914, p. 202, 239-240).

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