Gerson Digital : Germany I


3.4 Dutch Artists in the Service of Johann Wilhelm

Only during the reign of Johann Wilhelm (1658-1716) [1-2] the Düsseldorf residence became the centre of artistic life on the Rhine. Italian, German, Flemish and Dutch painters, sculptors and architects worked at his court. Fantastic building plans, of which only few were realized, kept the elector occupied. As a collector, he was only surpassed by August the Strong, whose son continued this hobby to an even larger extent. Johann Wilhelm’s successor Karl Philipp however swiftly put an end to this extravagance. More Dutchmen than Flemings worked at Johann Wilhelm’s court. From these only Jan Frans van Douven (1656-1727) and Anthon Schoonjans (1655-1726) [3] are worth mentioning.1

Anthon Schoonjans
Self-portrait of Anthon Schoonjans (1655-1726),
canvas, oil paint 83 x 66 cm
Oberschleissheim, Staatsgalerie im neuen Schloss Schleissheim, inv./ 4580

Jan Frans van Douven
Portrait of Johann Wilhelm, elector of the Palatine, dated 1716
canvas, oil paint 98 x 80 cm
Düsseldorf, Stadtmuseum Düsseldorf, inv./ B 174

Jan Frans van Douven
Portrait of Johann Wilhelm, Elector of the Palatine (1658-1716), 1708-1714
canvas, oil paint 142 x 104 cm
Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, inv./ D 2161

Douven’s style comes closer to the Dutch finepainting from the school of Dou than to the Flemish genre painters of around the turn of the century, which makes him an example of a Flemish painter working under the influence of Dutch art. According to Houbraken Jan Frans van Douven came to Düsseldorf as a court painter in 1682. He also had to travel for his patron to buy paintings and to portray princes. In 1686 he went to Vienna to portray Empress Eleonore, a sister of the Elector.2 In 1695 he accompanied Johann Wilhelm on a trip to Holland and in 1696 he went to Copenhagen with Anthon Schoonjans to portray Sophie Hedwig, daughter of King Christian V [4-5].3 In 1697 we encounter him in Modena and Florence, where he painted the archduke [6] for his daughter, the Electress of the Palatinate [7]. He left his self-portrait behind [8]4 and later on more works by his hand ended up in Florence.5

Jan Frans van Douven
Portrait of Cosimo III de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany, 1697
canvas, oil paint 65 x 53,5 cm
Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, inv./ M.Ob.793

Jan Frans van Douven
Portrait of Princess Sophie Hedevig (1677-1735), c. 1696
canvas, oil paint 88 x 67 cm
: J. F. Douwen pinx.
Hillerød, The National Museum of History Frederiksborg Castle, inv./ A 1265

Jan Frans van Douven
Portrait of Princess Sophie Hedevig (1677-1735), c. 1696
canvas, oil paint 87,6 x 66,5 cm
Copenhagen, The Royal Danish Collection - Rosenborg Castle, inv./ 9-109

attributed to Jan Frans van Douven
Portrait of Anna Maria Luisa de'Medici (1667-1743), electress of the Palatine, before 1708
canvas, oil paint 127 x 99 cm
Mannheim (Germany), Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen

Jan Frans van Douven
Self portrait with the double portrait of the Elector Johann Wilhelm and Anna Maria Luisa, c. 1715
canvas, oil paint 54,6 x 44,7 cm
lower right : 492
Düsseldorf, Museum Kunstpalast

In October 1707 he was in Rotterdam again. In Frankfurt he was looking for old master paintings, but only found a work by Hans Rottenhammer, that was not to the taste of the elector. His activity was divided between painting portraits and dealing in art. In both capacities, as an artist and as a buyer, he travelled a lot. Large sums went through his hands. In 1695 Johann Wilhelm had him payed out 1,000 Thaler for purchased ‘Schildereien’; in 1705 he got paid 1,000 again, in 1706 5,000, in 1713 12,180, in 1715 19,000, etc. He also was the custodian of the Gallery. All of this, perhaps, better illustrates his importance for cultural life in Düsseldorf than his paintings.6

During the Dutch trip of 1695 Johann Wilhelm acquired a painting from Eglon van der Neer for 200 Thaler. Soon after the painter must have travelled to Düsseldorf, where he married Adriana Spilberg in 1697.7 Maria Anna, a sister of Johann Wilhelm, was married to Charles II of Spain and Van der Neer probably worked for her as well, which brought him the title of court painter of Spain [9].8 However, he did not profit much from this position, since the elector still tried to recover the money for him in 1696 and 1699.

Eglon van der Neer
Portrait of Maria Anna of Neuburg, future queen of Spain (1667-1740), 1689
canvas on panel, oil paint 41,5 x 29 cm
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 5647

In 1691 Johann Wilhelm married Maria Anna Luisa, a daughter of Cosimo III de’ Medici. Many paintings by Van der Neer went to Florence as a gift of the son-in-law [10-12].9 But enough stayed in Düsseldorf itself: about four genre paintings [13-14] and 13 landscape paintings [15-18] are documented to have been in the possession of Johann Wilhelm.10

Eglon van der Neer
Landscape with washerwomen, dated 1697
panel, oil paint 28 x 41 cm
lower right : Egl: vander Neer fe. 1697
Florence, Palazzo Pitti

Eglon van der Neer
Esther swoons in front of Ahassuerus (Esther Apocryphia 15:7), dated 1696
canvas, oil paint 70,5 x 54 cm
lower left : Eglon Hendrick van der Neer fec. 1696
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 1186

Eglon van der Neer
Self portrait of Eglon van der Neer (1634-1703), dated 1696
canvas, oil paint 105 x 73,5 cm
lower right : Eglon Hendric Van der Neer F. / 1696
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 1872

Eglon van der Neer
Young woman tuning a lute, dated 1678
panel (oak), oil paint 42,5 x 36,7 cm
lower right : E. vander. Neer. fe. 1678
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 204

Eglon van der Neer
Fainted woman, dated 1680
panel, oil paint 52 x 43 cm
lower left : Egelon van der Neer fe 1680
Private collection

Eglon van der Neer
The angel reveals the water in the desert to Hagar (Genesis 21: 17-21), dated 1697
panel, oil paint 50,5 x 40,6 cm
lower left : E.H. van der Neer fe. 1697
Bayreuth, Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss Bayreuth, inv./ 2012

Eglon van der Neer
Landscape with shepherd couple, dated 1698
panel (oak), oil paint 50,5 x 40,3 cm
lower right : E.H. van der Neer fe. 1698
Bayreuth, Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss Bayreuth, inv./ 2010

Eglon van der Neer
Mountain landscape, dated 1698
panel (oak), oil paint 24,6 x 33,1 cm
lower right : E. H. vander Neer / 1698
Bayreuth, Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss Bayreuth, inv./ 2873

Eglon van der Neer
Landscape with bush on the foreground, dated 1702
panel (oak), oil paint 23,9 x 32,9 cm
lower left : E.H. van der Neer f. 1702
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 5240

But admired most of all at the court in Düsseldorf was Adriaen van der Werff (1659-1722).11 In 1696 Johann Wilhelm paid him a visit in Rotterdam and bought a work by his hand from an art lover in Amsterdam. From the artist himself he ordered a self-portrait which was intended for the gallery of self-portraits of his father-in-law in Florence [19] as well as a representation of the Verdict of Solomon [20]. When Van der Werff delivered the paintings in Düsseldorf, he was richly rewarded.12 In addition he received a princely annual salary from that time on. In return he had to work six months, later nine months for the elector, but he was allowed to stay in Rotterdam. From time to time he appeared in Düsseldorf to bring a painting or to sketch the portraits of the elector and electress [21]. His patron showered him with gifts: he was knighted and received a coat of arms.

Adriaen van der Werff
Self-portrait of the artist with a double portrait of his wife Margaretha van Rees (1669-1732) and their daughter Maria (1692-1731), dated 1697
canvas, oil paint 89 x 73 cm
location unknown : Adr.ⁿ vandr Werff fec. An° 1697
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 971

Adriaen van der Werff
Solomon gives verdict; he commands a soldier to divide the living child in two; the true mother objects to Solomon's verdict (1 Kings 3:25-27, dated 1697
panel, oil paint 70,5 x 53 cm
on the back : Adriano Vander Verff di Rotterdam 1697
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 1777

Adriaen van der Werff
Double portrait of Johann Wilhelm of the Palatine and Anna Maria de Medici, c. 1716
paper, inkt 191 x 153 mm
Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München, inv./ 1068

Except for portraits, Van der Werff painted a series of 16 representations from the lives of Christ and Mary (the ‘Mysteries’, as Weyerman says) [22-25], that precede an allegorical glorification of the princely couple.13 Of the 30 paintings now in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, 29 of them are derived from the collection of Johann Wilhelm. When we add thereto the works that Johann Wilhelm gave away to Florence, Dresden and Poland, one arrives at a quite considerable number.

Adriaen van der Werff
The Annunciation, dated 1706
panel, oil paint 81 x 58 cm
lower left : Chevr vr Werff. fe. an° 1706
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 252

Adriaen van der Werff
The mocking and crowning with thorns of Christ, dated 1710
panel, oil paint 81,7 x 57,4 cm
lower right : Chevr v. Werff. fe / an° 1710
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 239

Adriaen van der Werff
Simeon singing in the Temple, dated 1705
panel, oil paint 81,6 x 57,5 cm
location unknown : Chevr. vr Werff. fec. / anº 1705
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 235

Adriaen van der Werff
The descending of the Holy Ghost, dated 1711
panel, oil paint 81,7 x 57,6 cm
lower left : Chev vr Werff fec / an° 1711
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 227

Jan Philips van der Schlichten
Portrait of Karl III Philipp, Elector Palatine (1661-1742), dated 1729
canvas, oil paint 242 x 149,3 cm
lower right : van der Schlichten 1729
Heidelberg (Germany), Kurpfälzisches Museum, inv./ G 1861

Karl Philipp III von der Pfalz, Johann Wilhelm’s successor, removed the annual salary of Van der Werff in 1719, but still paid handsomely for the paintings that were commissioned. In the same year he sent over three works to Mannheim, which reflects his predilection for the art of this master.14 In 1721 Karl Philipp employed Van der Werff’s pupil Johan Philips van der Schlichten (1681-1745?), in whose works the style of the celebrated finepainter lived on until far in the 18th century [26-28].

Jan Philips van der Schlichten
Portrait of the jester of Charles III Philip Elector Palatine, after c. 1720
canvas, oil paint 94 x 74 cm
Neurenberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum

Jan Philips van der Schlichten after Adriaen van der Werff
The Holy Family with St. John the Baptist, 1727 (dated)
panel, oil paint 58,5 x 44,6 cm
Bonhams (London (England)) 2004-12-08, nr. 64

Bartholomeus Douven after Adriaen van der Werff
The honouring of the arts, dated 1722
canvas, oil paint 83 x 58,5 cm
on the back : Ce Tableaux a esté copié par Bartoloy Douven d'après son Maître le Chevalier Van Der Werff l'an 1722. L'original estans avec les quinze autres Misteres de la même Grandeur dans la Gallerie de S.A.I. Monseigneur l'Electeur Palatin ecc.
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 1239

Johann Wilhelm had some paintings of Van der Werff copied by his pupil Bartholomeus van Douven (1691-in or after 1726) [29].15 The goldsmith Peter Boy (c. 1650-1727) used Van der Werff’s Entombment of Christ [30] and the portraits of the princely couple in an enamel work [31-32].16 Isaac Walraven (1686-1765), a weak follower of Adriaen van der Werff, visited Düsseldorf around 1710. Maybe the mythological scene of 1716 (now in Mannheim) [33] was painted for Johann Wilhelm.17

Peter Boy after Adriaen van der Werff
The entombment of Christ, dated 1716
gold, enamel (coating) 19 x 15,7 cm
location unknown : P. Boy 1716
Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, inv./ R 3954

Peter Boy after Adriaen van der Werff
Portrait of Johann Wilhelm Elector Palatine (1658-1716), dated 1700
copper, enamel (coating) 10 x 8 cm
right : PB 1700
Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum

Peter Boy after Adriaen van der Werff
Portrait of Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (1667-1743), electress of the Palatine, dated 1700
copper, enamel (coating) 10 x 8 cm
right : P.B. [in ligature] 1700
Munich, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum

Isaac Walraven
Alexander yields Campaspe to Apelles, dated 1716
canvas, oil paint 43 x 51 cm
lower right : ISAAK WALRAVEN FEC A.1716
Mannheim (Germany), Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen

Godefridus Schalcken
Woman with a candle that a boy tries to blow out, c. 1699-1706
canvas, oil paint 80 x 63 cm
lower right : G. Schalcken
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 292

This was, however, not the end of the activity of Dutch painters for this patron, although no other artist ever acquired a position like Van der Werff. Godefridus Schalcken (1643-1706) sent some paintings to Düsseldorf [34-40], without ever working there.18

Godefridus Schalcken
The five wise and five foolish virgins, dated 1700
canvas, oil paint 93,8 x 113,4 cm
upper right : G. Schalcken 1700
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 296

Godefridus Schalcken
The mocking of Christ,
canvas, oil paint 145 x 112 cm
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 5248

Godefridus Schalcken
The penitent Mary Magdalene,
canvas, oil paint 100 x 72,3 cm
lower right : G. Schalcken
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 293

Godefridus Schalcken
The holy family,
panel, oil paint 26 x 21 cm
lower left : G. Schalcken
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 220

Godefridus Schalcken
The penitent Mary Magdalene, dated 1700
canvas, oil paint 94 x 69 cm
lower left : G. Schalcken 1700
New York City, The Leiden Collection, inv./ GS-114

Godefridus Schalcken
Rest on the flight into Egypt,
canvas, oil paint 37,2 x 30,7 cm
lower left : G. Schalcken
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 1294

Rachel Ruysch
Flowers and fruit in a forest, dated 1714
canvas, oil paint 97 x 132,2 cm
lower left : Rachel Ruysch 1714
Augsburg, Städtische Kunstsammlungen Augsburg, inv./ 12580

The flower painter Rachel Ruysch was appointed to the court in 1708, but does not seem to have lived there continuously. Uffenbach visited her in 1711 in Amsterdam. She couldn’t paint more than two pictures a year and one of them was reserved for the Düsseldorf elector, who paid her an annual salary [41-46].19

Rachel Ruysch
Flowers in a glass vase, with a praying mantis, on a marble ledge, dated 1708
canvas, oil paint 92,3 x 70,2 cm
lower right : Rachel Ruysch / 1708
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 430

Rachel Ruysch
Flowerpiece, dated 1715
canvas, oil paint 75 x 60,3 cm
lower left : Rachel Ruysch 1715
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 878

Rachel Ruysch
Still life of fruit and animals at the foot of a a tree in front of a grotto, dated 1709
canvas, oil paint 91 x 70 cm
left center : Rachel Ruysch / 1709
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 420

Rachel Ruysch
Still life of flowers in a wicker basket, probably 1711
panel, oil paint 46,2 x 61,6 cm
on the back : Rachel Ruysch
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 1285 ( 1890)

Rachel Ruysch
Still life of fruit, animals and insects on a mossy ground, dated 1711
panel, oil paint 46 x 61 cm
lower left : Rachel Ruysch / 1711
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 1276 ( 1890)

Herman van der Mijn did work in Düsseldorf from 1712 on, but returned to the Netherlands after the elector’s death four years later [47-48]. Possibly the paintings listed as ‘2 v.d. Min’, which were transported to Düsseldorf from Bensberg Castle in 1793, were products of his hand as well.20 A still-life from Coenraet Roepel (1678-1748) [49] must have been bought by the elector shortly before his death.21 All in all, the late flower still-life was not badly represented in Johann Wilhelm’s art collection.

Herman van der Mijn
A floral still life with roses and tulips on a stone ledge,
canvas, oil paint 78 x 64 cm
lower right : H VANDER MYN
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 904

Herman van der Mijn
Boy with flowers and a parrot,
canvas, oil paint 93 x 70 cm
lower right : H vander Myn
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 5233

Coenraet Roepel
A floral still life in a stone vase on a stone sculpted base, dated 1715
canvas, oil paint 79 x 63 cm
lower left : Coenraet Roepel Fecit A. 1715
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 1346

Apart from cabinet painters, Johann Wilhelm employed a number of ‘decorative’ artists, who had to adorn his castles. At the top of his list was Jan Weenix. In Bensberg he covered the walls of a long gallery with large still-lifes and hunting scenes [50-57]. He was paid the impressive amount of 3.239 Thaler in 1705, for which he had worked ten years, from 1702 until 1712. The paintings were executed in Amsterdam and slightly damaged parts were touched up on the spot. The 15 works, now in Munich and Schleissheim, belong to the best decorative ‘wall paintings’ from the Northern Netherlands.22

Jan Weenix
Hunting still life with a landscape and Schloß Bensberg, dated 1712
canvas, oil paint 345 x 561,5 cm
lower right : J Weenix f. 1712
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 776

Jan Weenix
The boar hunt,
canvas, oil paint 346 x 214 cm
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 777

Jan Weenix
Hunting still life before a statue of Diana,
canvas, oil paint 345,5 x 206 cm
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 1737

Jan Weenix
The deer hunt,
canvas, oil paint 318 x 458 cm
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 1728

Jan Weenix
Game on a parapet near a seaport, dated 1714
canvas, oil paint 320 x 549 cm
lower left : J Weenix f 1714
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 1730

Jan Weenix
Exotic animals and plants at a lake, 1714
canvas, oil paint 325 x 202 cm
lower left : J Weenix f 1714
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 1729

Jan Weenix
EelectorJohann Wilhelm von der Pfalz and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de'Medici on a deer hunt on the Rhine in a caouflage boat, dated 1714
canvas, oil paint 278 x 438 cm
Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv./ 4979

Jan Weenix
A hunting party in an extensive landscape with riding equipment on an marble ledge in the foeground, c. 1712-1714
canvas, oil paint 85,2 x 115 cm
Christie's (Amsterdam) 2007-11-14, nr. 98

Jan van Nickelen (1655/6-1721) worked on the decorations of Benrath and painted two views of the castle in 1714 and 1715 [58-59].23 After the death of Johann Wilhelm the artist moved on to Kassel. In 1711 Jan van Huchtenburg (1647-1733) was at the court of the Palatine , which he must have supplied with his usual paintings of battle scenes [60-61].24 The elector rewarded him with a golden medal. The same way in which the style of Hondecoeter became known in Düsseldorf through Weenix, Huchtenburg transmitted that of Wouwermans. Of some other painters we know they stayed for a shorter or a longer while at the court, without having a clear idea about the works they executed there. They are: Theodor Hartzoecker (1696-1740/41), who was sent to Rome by the Elector in 1711, Willem Troost I (1684-1752/9) [62],25 Jan Maas, Albertus van der Burch (1672-1760), N.N. Roukens and Tobias van Nijmegen (born c. 1665), who took Gerard Sanders (1702-1767) with him.26

Jan van Nickelen
Castle Benrath by Düsseldorf from the north, dated 1715
canvas, oil paint 74 x 95 cm
on the back : Ihrer churfürstl. Durchlt. zu Pfalz Schloss und Jagdschloss Benrath Zwey stund von Düsseldorf im Bergischen gelegen, Dipicta a Joanne de Nickele 1715
Speyer, Staatsgemäldesammlung Speyer, inv./ 2171

Jan van Huchtenburg
Equistrian battle at the forest edge,
canvas, oil paint 71 x 88,5 cm
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 2071

Jan van Nickelen
Castle Benrath by Düsseldorf from the south, dated 1714
canvas, oil paint 74 x 95 cm
location unknown : Depicta a Joanne de Nickele 1714
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 2171

Jan van Huchtenburg
Storming of a fortified city,
canvas, oil paint 71,5 x 88 cm
lower right : HB
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 2070

Willem Troost (I)
Bergachtig rivierlandschap met brug en stad,
paper, gouache (material/technique) 185 x 240 mm
lower right : W. Troost
Christie's (New York City) 2002-01-23, nr. 126


1 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Douven as a court painter: Mai 1988. Antoon Schoonjans was not born c. 1655 in Antwerp, as was assumed until recently, but baptized 5 March 1655 in Ninove (Belgium) as son of the wine merchant Joannes Schoonians and Anna de Gruytere (, retrieved 5 April 2017).

2 [Gerson 1942/1983] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 348-353. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Levin 1911, p. 15-16.

3 [Van Leeuwen 2017] See also Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 2.13.

4 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Actually, the painting probably was meant for Cosimo III de' Medici's gallery of self-portraits of artists and came to the Uffizi on January 3, 1718. The preliminary sketch is in Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf (Berti/Caneva 1979, p. 1027, no. A972).

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] See Gerson 1942/1983, p. 179.

6 [Gerson 1942/1983] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 350; Weyerman 1729-1769, vol. 3, p. 182; Levin 1911, p. 11, 145; Buchheit 1911, p. 189. See also § 3.4.

7 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Van der Neer: Schavemaker 2010. He painted two paintings for the elector in 1696, which he delivered in Düsseldorf in 1697; he was appointed Titularhofrat in a lettre de cachet from 22 March 1697 and became court painter in 1698 (Schavemaker 2010, p. 41-42).

8 [Gerson 1942/1983] Her portrait in Speyer, Hofstede de Groot 1907-1928, vol. 5, no. 124.

9 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hofstede de Groot 1907-1928, vol. 5, no. 5, 120, 170.

10 [Van Leeuwen 2017] There were 19 paintings by Eglon van der Neer in Johann Wilhelm's collection, all in RKDimages. Schavemaker 2010 mentions one more painting  (no. B 2) in Johann Wilhelm's collection, that was (wrongly?) listed as a Eglon van der Neer and has disappeared since 1851 (communication Paul van Kooij).

11 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Eikemeier 1972; Snoep/Meyerman/Thiels 1973; Gaehtgens 1987. During her traineeship at the RKD in 2015, Lieke Janssen (University of Amsterdam) described the artworks by Adriaen van der Werff in RKDimages.

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 396.

13 [Gerson 1942/1983] In April 1711 eight paintings were ready (Uffenbach 1753-1754, vol. 3, p. 742-744). Weyerman 1729-1769, vol. 4, p. 68; Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 393.

14 [Gerson 1942/1983] Levin 1911, p. 141.

15 [Gerson 1942/1983] Now in the Uffizi. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Bartholomeus Douven was baptized 15 January 1691, not born in 1688 (Levin 1911, p. 16); he worked with his father at the court in Düsseldorf. The architect I.M. van Douven (active 1744-1751) possibly was his son.

16 [Gerson 1942/1983] Buchheit 1911, p. 187. Compare to Lorenz Eppenhoff’s activity in Berlin! On the iconography of Johann Wilhelm: Teich-Balgheim 1938, p. 21. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Another enamel copy by Boy after Van der Werff is RKDimages 283232.

17 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson erroneously assumed there were two paintings by Walraven dated 1716 in the collection, but there is only one.

18 [Gerson 1942/1983] Levin 1911, p. 3; Veth 1892, p. 5. [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Schalcken: Sevcík et al. 2015.

19 [Gerson 1942/1983] Uffenbach 1753-1754, vol. 3, p. 627-628. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Indeed she travelled several times from Amsterdam to Düsseldorf in these years; she named her 10th child Jan Wilhelm (baptized 21 July 1711) after her patron. The Elector and his wife Maria Anna Luisa de' Medici were the godparents (, Rachel [13/01/2014]).

20 [Gerson 1942/1983] Thamm suggests ‘v.d. Meer (?)’ (Thamm 1902, p. 229). Weyerman 1729-1769, vol. 4, p. 353-357.

21 [Gerson 1942/1983] Van Gool 1750-1751, vol. 1, p. 428. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Baumstark/Dekiert/Quaeitzsch 2009, p. 260, no. 2, p. 331 (ill.), 376. The painting must have been created in The Hague and brought personally by the artist to Düsseldorf, where he was paid well and rewarded by a golden chain with a portrait medal of the elector.

22 [Gerson 1942/1983] Thamm 1902, p. 229; Levin 1911, p. 145. [Van Leeuwen 2017] The cycle originally consisted of 12 paintings with hunting scenes, which decorated the audience room and two antechambers on the first floor of the Southern wing of the hunting and summer residence Schloß Bensberg. One of the paintings was destroyed during the War of the First Coalition (1792-1797), when an Austrian hospital was stationed in the castle. Considering the different sizes of the paintings, some of the works were probably cropped (Thamm 1902; Eikemeier 1978). The 8th illustrated painting, auctioned at Christie’s in 2007, probably also belonged to the series (Baumgärtel 2008, p. 48-49).

23 [Gerson 1942/1983] Ill. 71. In Speyer and formerly in Schleissheim. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson wrongly states Bensberg instead of Benrath. On Van Nickelen in Kassel: § 4.1.

24 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Huchtenburg also would have painted figures in the landscapes of Jan van Nickelen (Tieze 2004, p. 22).

25 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Willem Troost worked in the studio of Herman van der Mijn in Düsseldorf, where he met the daughter of Jan van Nickelen, Jacoba Maria van Nickelen (see also § 4.1). The couple married in Düsseldorf in 1714 and two years later moved on to several other courts in Germany (Cologne, Duisburg, Essen, Cleves), where they worked until 1735. Thieme/Becker 1907-1950, vol. 33 (1939), p. 428; Scheen 1981, p. 527. Except for portraits, Troost also made many (phantasy?) views of activity on the Rhine in the taste of Herman Saftleven, whom he also copied.

26 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerard Sanders was Tobias’ stepson. When he was seven, his mother, Anna Elizabeth Leking, married the painter, who took them both to Düsseldorf. As a boy Gerard studied the paintings in the gallery of the Elector, under the supervision of his stepfather. At the age of 16 he went back to Rotterdam to become an apprentice of his uncle, Elias van Nijmegen (Van Gool 1750-1751, vol. 2, p. 304-307).

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