Gerson Digital : Germany I

RKD STUDIES

2.5 Artists from Hamburg

The wide variety of directions in Netherlandish art are reflected extensively in Hamburg painting.1 The mannerist portrait style is represented by David Kindt (1580-1652).2 His self-portrait in Hamburg [1] can well be compared to the influential portrait type of Cornelis Ketel.3 Other paintings close to his style, like the portrait of Gertrud Moller of 1618 (Hamburger Kunsthalle) [2], follow the work of Goltzius.4 Kindt is particularly conservative. The models he utilizes in the second and third decades of the 17th century, are now well over thirty years old. When he has to restore an old painting in the Jacobi Church in 1622, he surrounds the representation with arabesques deriving from a Goltzius print of 1593! In 1643 he paints a landscape with the Entry into Jerusalem [3] which holds on to the Coninxloo-style of days long gone by. Even for Hamburg this is quite old-fashioned.5

1
David Kindt
Portrait of a man holding a watch, c. 1604
canvas, oil paint 74,7 x 61,5 cm
right : Davit Kindt ET F.
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 457

2
Jacob Jacobs (active 1593-1618)
Portrait of Gertrud Moller, dated 1618
panel (oak), oil paint 100,4 x 75,4 cm
upper left : GERTRVD MOLLER NATA AO CHRISTI 1584 DIE 19 AVG. MENS. ANNVM AETATIS AGIT 34
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. HK-227

3
David Kindt
Landscape with the Entrance of Christ into Jerusalem, dated 1643
panel, oil paint 55 x 85 cm
lower right : 1643 / DKIN
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze

Also the perspective feats of Hans Vredeman de Vries found its emulators. Gabriel Engels (1592-1654)6 delivered such ‘artfully painted perspectives’ for the court in Gottorf, which are now lost [4].7 On the other hand, a comparable painting in the catholic church in Hamburg did survive.8 Jochim Ellerbrock (active 1609-1653) must have painted similarly, if such pictures in Danish castles are attributed to him correctly.9

Otto Wagenfeldt (c. 1610-1671/82) is the first painter in Hamburg, whose work completely shows the influence of Rembrandt. Although he still uses prints by Goltzius for his compositions, Rembrandt’s impact is revealed in the new, warm range of colours [5] and also in the painterly approach of his studies of old men, which are mostly done after Rembrandt’s etchings. It cannot be ruled out that he was in the Netherlands in the 1630s, although there is no archival evidence of such a visit. There or in Hamburg he must have become acquainted with works by Rubens, because the adoption of his forms [6] are even more numerous than his motifs derived from Dutch art [7].10

We skip the unknown Evert Decker († 1647), who is mentioned as Wouwerman’s teacher,11 a certain Johann Stumm (active 1647) [8], who is mentioned by Sandrart as a portrait painter,12 Heinrich Dittmers (c. 1625-1677) and Andreas Magerstadt (active 1639-1652), who both were mainly active in Denmark,13 to dwell for a moment on Jacob Weyer (1623-1670).14

4
Gabriel Engels
Courtyard with human figures,
canvas, oil paint 71 x 84,5 cm
location unknown : GE
Copenhagen, SMK - National Gallery of Denmark, inv./cat.nr. KMSst589

5
Otto Wagenfeldt
The bird's-nest, probably c. 1650
panel, oil paint 63,8 x 49,5 cm
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 244

7
Otto Wagenfeldt
Death, c. 1649-165
canvas, oil paint 76,8 x 55, 2 cm
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 263

6
Otto Wagenfeldt
Natvity, c. 1650
panel, oil paint ? x ? cm
Hamburg, St. Jacobi zu Hamburg

8
Johann Stumm
A vanitas still-life with a skull, a candleholder and coins, 1640s
panel, oil paint 22,3 x 31 cm
upper right : JOHAN STVM
Paris/New York, art dealer Haboldt & Co.

9
Jacob Weyer
Man to man fighting between horse-men and infantry soldiers,
panel, oil paint ? x ? cm
lower right : Jacob: Weijer
Whereabouts unknown

It is said that Weyer studied the works of Philips Wouwerman, who was only one year his senior, in Holland. But his cavalry battle scenes (Brunswick, Dessau) [9],15 sometimes comprising the subject of the Conversion of Paul, actually belong to an earlier phase. Esaias van de Velde, Palamedes Palamedesz en Benjamin Cuyp [10] are his real models, which also affect the works of the young Wouwerman. When we name Benjamin Cuyp here, we immediately think of Rembrandt’s colouring and dramatic chiaroscuro. Undoubtedly something of the essence of the young Rembrandt shines through in Weyers’ works, ‘although distorted and intensified by the gothic urge of mannerist expression’ (in translation).16 Also the young Jacob Weyer painted ‘Dutch pictures’.17

10
Benjamin Cuyp
Conversion of Paul on his way to Damascus,
panel, oil paint 86,3 x 104,6 cm
Sotheby's (Amsterdam) 2000-11-07, nr. 209

Matthias Scheits (c. 1625/30-c. 1700) on the other hand is not obsessed with this ‘urge’. He is more versatile and productive than Weyer and he uses his models more freely. He must have been in the Netherlands repeatedly, because he relates personally about Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Philip Wouwermans and Jacob Jordaens.18 The influence of the first two appears to be relatively modest, especially since ‘The bird's-nest’ and ‘Death’ (see above) have been given to the older Wagenfeldt.19 Admittedly his biblical scenes (Pommersfelden, Hamburg) [11-15] are still Rembrandtesque, but in a loose, fluffy way of an Aert de Gelder, to whom the Three men in the furnace in Pommerfelden was attributed once. The influence of Wouwerman does not particularly reveal itself in wild cavalry battles, but in the elegant and artful handling of the silk cloths in his genre paintings.

11
Matthias Scheits
The conversion of the apostle Paul on his way to Damascus (Acts 9:1-9),
canvas, oil paint 92 x 77,3 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 569

12
Matthias Scheits
Rebekah offers Eliezer a drink from her pitcher (Genesis 24:17-18), 1670-1672
panel (oak), oil paint 58,1 x 82 cm
lower left : M:SCHEITS
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 246

13
Matthias Scheits
Christ and the woman of Samaria: sitting at Jacob's well he asks her for a drink from her jug (JohN 4:5-27), 1670-1679
panel (oak), oil paint 40,2 x 54,1 cm
lower right : MS
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 249

14
Matthias Scheits
David rebuked by Nathan (2 Samuel 12:7-13); David gives Uriah a letter for Joab (2 Samuel 11:14-17); David repentant (2 Samuel 12:16), dated 1672
canvas, oil paint 47 x 55,5 cm
lower right : MS.1672.
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 248

15
Matthias Scheits
King Nebuchadnezzar sees four men in the furnace; the king commands them to come forth (Daniel 3: 13-24),
canvas, oil paint 70 x 88 cm
Pommersfelden, Schloss Weissenstein der Grafen von Schönborn

16
Matthias Scheits
Peasants smoking in a barn,
panel, oil paint 37 x 55 cm
bottom (positional attribute) : M.S.
Roudnice, Roudnice Castle

He had a particular interest in the late peasant paintings of Adriaen van Ostade and Dusart. In Raudnitz [Roudnice] castle are two peasant paintings, attributed to a ‘Matthias Scheuts’ [16]. If these are by the hand of our master, they show him as an imitator of an early Adriaen van Ostade (Anthonie Victorijns).20

Especially in his drawings he knows how to merge beautifully the natural observation with the technique and style of the indulgent Dutch. Scheits moves around freely and unbiased in the style of the old masters, without renouncing his natural disposition to capture daily life in a genre-like manner. He is clever enough is to seek advice from Anthony van Dyck about a distinguished portrait (Braunschweig)21 [17] and to look at Adriaen van de Velde and Hendrick Verschuring to draw horses [18-19]. His etchings certainly are no technical masterpieces. All his representations look somewhat provincial, by the way ̶ the faithful narrative will not hide the weaknesses and limited types. His son Andreas Scheits (1655-1735) distinguished himself mainly as a portrait painter. His sitters are painted in the smooth Rembrandt manner [20], which was maintained so skilfully by Balthasar Denner.22

17
is/was called Matthias Scheits
Portrait of a woman with a lapdog, 1640-1649
canvas, oil paint 94 x 81 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 557

18
Matthias Scheits
A farmer driving his horses in a stable, dated 1671
paper, pen in brown ink, washed 202 x 292 mm
lower left : MS 1671
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 29444

19
Matthias Scheits
Horses on the meadow, dated 1678
paper, pen in brown ink, washed 189 x 277 mm
lower right : MS 1678
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 29453

20
Andreas Scheits
Portrait of an old jew, dated 1709
canvas, oil paint 82,3 x 67 cm
in verso : A. Scheidts fe[ci]t 1709
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 264

Hamburg was not short of portrait painters, so that it was not really strange the Dutch held themselves back here.23 Joachim Luhn (c. 1640-1717),24 who was probably a pupil of Adriaen Backer (c. 1633-1684) in Rome, did catch a little of the Rembrandt tradition on the way. His portrait of the architect Hans Georg Hertel of 1672 (Braunschweig) [21]25 is about at the level of a late Ferdinand Bol, while the smooth handling of paint in the family portrait (also Braunschweig) [22]26 equals an Abraham van den Tempel and Jürgen Ovens. In biblical compositions, which originated towards the end of the century, he sticks to the model of Elliger and Italian artists.27

21
Joachim Luhn
Portrait of mathematician Hans Georg Hertel (1620-1697/99), dated 1672
canvas, oil paint 91 x 78 cm
upper right : NATUS Ao: i620 / den. i5 Decembr / et / pinxit ANNO / 1672. / J. Luhn pin.
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 575

22
Joachim Luhn
Family portrait of Joachim Luhn (c. 1640-1717) with his wife, Hanna Margarthe Weyer and her parents, the painter Jacob Weyer (1623-1670) and Margarethe, c. 1673
canvas, oil paint 126 x 152 cm
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./cat.nr. 576

23
Hans Hinrich Rundt
Portrait of a young man, supposedly a self-portrait, dated 1697
canvas, oil paint 34,5 x 28,5 cm
on the back : Rundt fecit 1697
Oldenburg (Niedersachsen), Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg, inv./cat.nr. 15.711

Hans Hinrich Rundt (c. 1660-c. 1750), who was trained by Gerard de Lairesse (1641-1711), does not negate his teacher’s decorative style in his portraits [23-24].28 The craftsman-like Elias Galli I (1650-1712/14), who visited Amsterdam in 1717 as a decorative painter from Holstein 29 appears to connect more to the old Dutch painters [25]. A portrait in the Hamburger Kunsthalle (no. 362) is attributed to him [26].30 Furthermore there is a signed and dated 16(82) work representing the Meßberg square in Hamburg in the Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte [27].31 From a Hermann Kamphusen († 1698) some portraits are preserved in prints [28]. To judge from these, it does not seem unlikely that he came from the Netherlands.32

24
Hans Hinrich Rundt
Portrait ofJohanna Sophie zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1673-1743), c. 1708
canvas, oil paint 77 x 57 cm
Lemgo, Weserrenaissance-Museum Schloss Brake

25
Elias Galli (I)
Portrait of an unknown man, c.1701
canvas, oil paint 78 x 66 cm
Hamburg, Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte, inv./cat.nr. 1987/87

26
Elias Galli (I)
Portrait of a Hamburg councilman (Hieronymus Sillem?), dated 1696
canvas, oil paint 50,1 x 39,7 cm
right : Elias Galli fe[it] / Anno 1696 / den 13 May
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 362

27
Elias Galli (I)
Messberg square in Hamburg, dated 16[82]
panel, oil paint 70 x 87 cm
: 16(82)
Hamburg, Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte

28
after Hermann Kamphusen
Portrait of Eberhard Werner Happel (1647-1690),
paper 193 x 156 mm
Hamburg, Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg

About landscape painting there is not much to say. Johann Oswald Harms (1643-1708) occasionally uses motifs from Albert Meyering, who made drawings in Hamburg [29].33 Johann Holst (active 1689-1728), who might be identical to I. von Holst who was mentioned in The Hague in 1701, paints more in the Flemish style of Boudewijns and Schoevaerts. Johann Georg Stuhr (c. 1640-1721) continues the tradition of Dutch marine painting in Hamburg, albeit with a tangible difference in quality [30-31].

30
Johann Georg Stuhr
Sailing ships for rocky coastline,
canvas, oil paint 49,5 x 67,5 cm
lower left : J.G.Stuhr
Dorotheum (Vienna) 1984-03-13 - 1984-03-20, nr. 549

29
Albert Meyering
Wide road in a landscape with trees and rocks near Hamburg, 1680s
paper, pen in brown ink 200 x 337 mm
: Aan de Seteynweg buyten Hamborg
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RP-T-1881-A-111

31
Johann Georg Stuhr
Danish whaler near Spitsbergen,
panel, oil paint 41 x 57,5 cm
lower left :
Carola van Ham (Keulen) 1986-03-12 - 1986-03-15, nr. 1058

The state of still-life painting in Hamburg is much better. A remarkable talent is Georg Hinz (1630/31-1688), who was active in Hamburg from 1665 until 1700.34 His paintings were attributed wrongly to Ottomar Elliger I and Barend van der Meer.35 It is likely that Elliger the Elder, who is documented in Hamburg at least from 1666, introduced him to the Dutch perception. The earliest paintings of Hinz show echoes of Dutch breakfast pieces like those of Pieter Claesz [32].36 Hinz was skilled in the illusionistic presentation of cabinets of curiosity (Hamburg, Berlin) [33-34].37 They are followed by still-lifes of luxuries in the style of Barend van der Meer and Willem Kalf.38 Also Hinrich Stravius († 1690) loved to make illusionistic paintings.39 His Hunting attributes (Hamburg) [35] hanging on a bright wall look as if they really hung there.40

32
Georg Hinz
Breakfast still life,
canvas, oil paint 80 x 74,5 cm
lower left : georg heintz fe
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle

33
Georg Hinz
The Cabinet of Curiosities, dated 1666
canvas, oil paint 114,5 x 93,3 cm
lower center : Georg Hainz Altona fecit. a[nn]o 1666
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 435

34
Georg Hinz
The Cabinet of Curiosities, 1664-1688
canvas, oil paint 127,5 x 102 cm
Potsdam (Germany), Bildergalerie am Schloss Sanssouci, inv./cat.nr. GK I 3002

35
Hinrich Stravius
Trompe l'oeil still-life with hunting attributs,
canvas, oil paint 62,3 x 49 cm
lower right : He. Stravius / pinxit
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle

36
Cornelis Norbertus Gijsbrechts
Trompe l'oeil letter rack with pulled aside curtain, tidy and miniature self-portrait of the artist, dated 1665
canvas, oil paint 99,3 x 82,5 cm
center : C.N. Gijsbrechts A° 1665
Hamburg, Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte, inv./cat.nr. AB 644

This type of illusionistic still-lives dispersed from the Netherlands all over Europe. The Hamburg painters may have copied it from Cornelis Norbertus Gijsbrechts, who excelled in this genre and who did work here [36-37].41

A pupil of Georg Hinz was Ernst Stuven (c. 1657-1712). He met Johannes Voorhout in 1675 and went with him to Amsterdam, where he led an adventurous life before he moved to Rotterdam.42 His paintings [38] are not inferior to those of other followers of Rachel Ruysch, who was his model.43 His contemporaries Franz Werner von Tamm (1658-1724) and Christian Berentz (1658-1722) belonged to the Flemish-Italian followers of Mario Nuzzi (1603-1673). Only a few paintings by Berentz are preserved (Rome, Corsini [39]; Napels [40]; Hamburg). Two of them, the still-lifes dated 1680 and 1691 in Hamburg [41-42], are definitely treated in the Dutch way ̶ indeed more awkward than Barend van der Meer and Hinz, but in their manner all the same. Also Tamm’s work has two aspects: there are Dutch flower pieces à la Van Huijsum [43] and Flemish-Italian paintings in imitation of Jan Fijt, Adriaen van Utrecht and Abraham Brueghel [44]. Later on Tamm was called to Vienna, where the rulers of Liechtenstein acquired his paintings on different occasions.44

37
Cornelis Norbertus Gijsbrechts
Trompe l'oeil of a cupboard door with letters, writing implements and coins, dated 1666
canvas, oil paint 96 x 81 cm
center : C.N. Gijsbrechts A° 1666
Amsterdam, Noortman Master Paintings (Amsterdam)

38
Ernst Stuven
Vase of flowers on a stone ledge,
canvas, oil paint 73,5 x 59 cm
lower center :
Munich, art dealer Xaver Scheidwimmer

39
Christian Berentz
Hang watch,
canvas, oil paint 52 x 67 cm
Rome, private collection Corsini (Rome), inv./cat.nr. 64

40
Christian Berentz
Still life of flowers and fruit with a woman picking grapes, dated 1696
canvas, oil paint 249 x 174 cm
location unknown : Christianus Berentz Hamburgensis Fecit Romae Ao:1696
Napels, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, inv./cat.nr. 84521

41
Christian Berentz
Still life, dated 1680
canvas, oil paint 106,8 x 91,5 cm
center right : C Berentz Ao 1680
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 352

42
Christian Berentz
Still life with fruits, in or c. 1691
canvas, oil paint 98,5 x 73 cm
on the back : Christias Bernesis fc. ano 1691
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle

43
Franz Werner von Tamm
Flower piece, dated 172[3?]
canvas, oil paint 92 x 74 cm
lower right : Fran. V. Tamm fc. Ao 172 (3?)
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 471

44
Franz Werner von Tamm
Fruit still life of melons and figs, c. 1690 or c. 1692
canvas, oil paint 59,7 x 73,5 cm
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./cat.nr. 476


Notes

1 [Gerson 1942./1983] In a master regulation of 1660 it is expressed: ‘Nobody will become a master, who […] has not travelled at least two years, and who has learned abroad (in translation)’ (Röver 1926, p. 88, with a list of painters in Hamburg who had a dispute with the painters’ guild between 1667 and 1682).

2 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schmidt 1919; Schmidt 1928. An article on David Kindt by Barbara Uppenkamp will be included in Master of Mobility (to be published by the RKD in 2018).

3 [Van Leeuwen 2017] According to Sitt/Schneede/Gassner 2007- (vol. 1, p. 211-212, no. 457, ill.) not a self-portrait, in previous literature considered as a self-portrait.

4 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Lichtwark attributed the painting in 1898 tentatively to David Kindt (Lichtwark 1898, vol.1, p. 96). This was refuted already by Schmidt who read the age of the sitter as 54 instead of 34, changing the date of origin to 1638 (Schmidt 1919, p. 29-30). The latter was refuted by Pauli (Pauli 1930, p. 98-99, no. 227, as Hamburger master of 1618). Gerson’s comparison to Goltzius escapes me.

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] Röver 1926, p. 10. Schmidt 1919; 9, Schmidt 1928. From the same year 1643 a Lucretia after an early Netherlandish painting (auction London, 23 February 1923, no. 151 as Flemish school, no image).

6 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Fusenig 2012.

7 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1916, p. 299. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Actually, the series was transferred to Denmark and survived (Fusenig 2012, p. 292-296, see also note 98).

8 [Gerson 1942/1983] This painting was lost in fire in 1943 (Fusenig 2012, p. 690 and note 16).

9 [Gerson 1942/1983] I saw such pictures in 1938 in Frederiksborg castle. Röver 1926, p. 53, 97-98. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Indeed these paintings, now in the Statens Museum of Art, are by the hand of Gabriel Engels (Fusenig 2012, p. 692 ff.). For all paintings by Engels now in the Statens Museum, see RKDimages or the website of the SMK.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Röver 1926, p. 13-47. ‘Death’ (Hamburg, no. 263), listed there as M. Scheits, is after Rembrandt’s etching of 1639.

11 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Decker employed Wouwerman in 1638-1639 (Van Thiel-Stroman 2006, p. 99-363, esp. p. 357 and 359.) See also § 2.4.

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] Sandrart/Peltzer 1675/1925, p. 349. [Van Leeuwen 2017] A fully signed work was with Haboldt & Co. in 2005 and 2015. Sander 2008, p. 164-165, no. 45, ill.

13 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding 2015, § 3.8 and 3.9.

14 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Trümper 2011 and Trümper 2012.

15 [Van Leeuwen 2012] The painting in Brunswick where Gerson refers to is now atrributed to Matthias Scheits (Trümper 2012, p. 95, no. GD 2). Several examples of battle scenes are included in RKDimages.

16 [Gerson 1942/1983] Cited from Benesch: ‘wenngleich verzerrt und gesteigert im gotischen Ausdrucksdrang des deutschen Manierismus’ (Benesch 1924, p. 158). (fig. 29) [fig. 64 in Gerson 1983].

17 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fig. 29 (1942); fig. 64 (1983).

18 [Gerson 1942/1983] Lichtwark 1899. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Jaacks 1987; Haak 2001, p. 253-268.

19 [Gerson 1942/1983] Röver 1926, p. 100.

20 [Gerson 1942/1983] Dvořák/Matejka 1910, p. 154, fig. 99.

21 [Van Leeuwen 2017] The attribution to Scheits seems a bit problematic, when we take into account, that he was learning in Haarlem in the 1640s, while the portrait itself refers to Flemish prototypes of e.g. Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens, datable to the 1630s. To date the portrait to Scheits's second stay in Holland in the 1670s is improbable, as the fashion is incompatible to that date. In Braunschweig the painting is attributed to M. Scheits since the inventory of 1776 of Salzdahlum (communication Jan Kosten, October 2016).

22 [Gerson 1942/1983] Andreas Scheits became court painter in Hannover in 1696/7.

23 [Gerson 1942/1983] Lichtwark 1898, vol. 1.

24 [Gerson 1942/1983] Röver 1926, p. 49-83.

25 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Jacoby/Michels 1989, p. 169-170, no. 575, ill.; Haak 2001, p. 256, no. HH5, ill.

26 [Gerson 1942/1983] Gerson 1942, fig. 42, Gerson 1983, fig. 65. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Jacoby/Michels 1989, p. 170-171, no. 576, ill.; Haak 2001, p. 279-280, no. SB 8, fig. 105.

27 [Gerson 1942/1983] Röver 1926, p. 75-76.

28 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Rundt: Salesh 2003.

29 [Van Leeuwen 2017] In Gerson’s time it was unknown that Elias Galli had a son, Elias Galli II (born 1676). He was the decorative painter who visited Amsterdam, not his father (Saur 1992-, vol. 48 [2006], p. 71).

30 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Sitt/Schneede/Gassner 2007- , p. 168-169, no. 362, ill. The portrait is fully signed and dated.

31 [Gerson 1942/1983] Biermann 1914, fig. 218. [Van Leeuwen 2017] A fully signed and 1677 dated still-life by Galli in Leipzig was wrongly given to Pieter Gallis by Hofstede de Groot (RKDimages 60729).

32 [Van Leeuwen 2017] As is maintained in Thieme/Becker 1907-1957, vol. 19 (1926), p. 508.

33 [Gerson 1942/1983] In the Print Room of the Rijksmuseum is a sheet from Meyering with an inscription ‘Aan de Seteynweg buyten Hamborg’ (At the Stone road [or Side-way?] outside Hamburg). On Harms, see also § 4.2. After a long trip he returned in 1696 to his hometown.

34 [Gerson 1942/1983] Peltzer 1934, p. XI. [Van Leeuwen 2017] He must have died before December 1, 1688 as on that date his widow Anna is mentioned to have paid 6 Mark 'Glockengeld', see the books of the St. Catherine's Church, Staatsarchiv Hamburg (Bastian 1984, p. 45).

35 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gauffin 1921. For example RKDimages 60649 and 70194.

36 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fig. 27 (1942), fig. 66 (1983).

37 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On this speciality of Hinz: Heinrich/Braun 1996.

38 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hinz also painted Dutch perceived portraits (collection Berthold, Munich; National Museum, Warsaw). Schröder 1938, p. 145.

39 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Obviously Stravius studied Hondecoeter for the realistic rendering of dead birds. The Nationalmuseum in Stockholm preserves a hunting still-life by Stravius after a work of Melchior d’Hondecoeter, now in Schwerin (Sitt/Schneede/Gassner 2007-, p. 313, note 2).

40 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fig. 28 (1942); fig. 67 (1983).

41 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gijsbrechts was in 1665-1668 in Hamburg. It is generally assumed that also Georg Hinz was influenced by Gijsbrechts (Saur 1992-, vol. 73 [2013], p. 298). However, Hinz’s Collector’s cabinet in the British Royal Collection (RKDimages 279621) is dated 1664, as is discovered recently (communication Ellinoor Bergvelt, 2016). In 1664 Gijsbrechts was documented in Regensburg. The influence of both masters must have been mutual.

42 [Van Leeuwen 2017] According to Houbraken he was imprisoned in Amsterdam for abuse and violent behaviour (Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 371-378).

43 [Van Leeuwen 2017] At TEFAF in March 2012  Scheidwimmer Gallery exhibited this flower still-life by Stuven that had a fake Rachel Ruysch signature until 1991, that obviously had been painted over the original one. More paintings by Stuven were previously attributed to Ruysch (f.e. RKDimages 7129).

44 [Van Leeuwen 1991] On Tamm: Hatscheck 1991.

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