Gerson Digital : Germany I


2.2 Oldenburg and Schleswig-Holstein

We treat Oldenburg and Schleswig-Holstein as politically connected lands. Here we count them as part of the German cultural landscape, regardless of their close connection to the state of Denmark, which also led to artists going back and forth. Incidentally, there are only a few names that have to be mentioned, since Jan Liss and other artists settled down abroad. Just as the Coninxloo family represented the Flemish-mannerist stage in Emden, the two brothers (?) Marten (active 1590-1630) and Govert van Achten (active 1593-1617) had developed an activity on a mannerist basis in the land of Holstein since the end of the 16th century. They had probably migrated from the Northern Netherlands and worked -- one could say: exclusively -- after mannerist prints from Maerten van Heemskerck, Frans Floris, Marten de Vos, Anthonie van Blocklandt, Bartholomeus Spranger, Hans van Aachen and Hendrick Goltzius. The most popular models, which were also used by other artists at the time, were the master prints from Goltzius, the Resurrection of Aegidius Sadelaer and the Resurrection of Lazarus by Jan Muller. In 1590-1591 the Van Achten brothers painted biblical scenes as decorations for the chapel of Gottorf castle, which are fine examples of slightly changed copies after prints, converted in scale and color [1-3].1 Also minor masters like Johan von Enum II (c. 1560-1615)[4]2 from Flensburg and Steffen Stager (active 1619-1645) did it this way, as well as other unknown artists whose paintings are found in Holstein’s churches.

Marten van Achten
The chapel of Gottorf castle, 1590-1591
panel (oak), oil paint 110 x 60 cm
Schleswig, Kulturstiftung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein - Schloss Gottorf

Marten van Achten
The adoration of the Kings (Matthew 2:1-12), 1590-1591
panel (oak), oil paint 110 x 60 cm
Schleswig, Kulturstiftung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein - Schloss Gottorf

Johan von Enum (II)
Epitaph of Evert Vette (1536-1599) and his family with the parable if the unmerciful servant (Matthew 18:23-35), dated 1601
panel, oil paint ? x ? cm
upper center : 1601
Flensburg, Marienkirche (Flensburg)

Marten van Achten
Temptation of Christ in the wilderness, 1590-1591
panel (oak), oil paint 110 x 60 cm
Schleswig, Kulturstiftung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein - Schloss Gottorf

A curious allegory of 1598 by the Flensburg painter Nicolaus Andreae (c. 1550-in or after 1606) is located in the Flensburg Museum [5], the complexity of which would do full credit to a Netherlandish mannerist.3 These late mannerist German paintings can be considered as precursors of a specific Dutch influence.

This can be discerned most clearly in portrait painting. Both the Van Achten brothers were already praised as portrait painters. In the financial books of the Court of Gottorf, which were published by Harry Schmidt, Dutch names occur time and again. A Jacob von Voordt (active 1581-1607) received substantial payments; he painted many things, particularly in Husum. Nothing of his work has been preserved; the same goes for the original and copy portraits by Abraham (active 1604-1624) and Lorens de Keyster (1607-1665).4 Other unknowns are Jacob Peter Davids and Willem Pijl (active 1622-1623). 5 That they all painted in Netherlandish style, we deduce from several anonymous portraits of Schleswig rulers that might stem from one or the other [6].6

It appears that David Bailly, who visited many courts when he travelled in Germany, also visited Oldenburg. This is not unlikely, since he stayed in nearby Hamburg for more than a year (1607-1608). The portrait painter Jacob van Doort († 1629) -- we will encounter him in Copenhagen7 -- worked at Gottorf’s court for many years. He dwellt in Hamburg for a while and supplied the dukes of Holstein [7-9] with his own and foreign products.8

Anselm van Hulle -- we already met him in Münster -- painted a portrait of the Duke of Gottorf in 1653 and two years later payments were made to the ‘contrafaiter (portrait painter) Gerrit Uylenburgh’ and the Dutch painter David Uylenburgh.9 Also in these cases it is not impossible that the two acted as art dealers. In the 1670s the painters Herman Hendrik de Quiter I (1627/28-1708) and Johannes Voorhout I (1647-1717) painted some things here, the latter probably not portraits, but decoration paintings.10

Nicolaus Andreae
Allegory on the elation of the Ottomans, dated 1598
panel, oil paint 74 x 54 cm
upper left : Observato/Modum/Superbitas
Flensburg, Städtisches Museum Flensburg, inv./ 12128

Anoniem Noord-Duitsland (landstreek) 1640 gedateerd
Portrait of Magdalena Sibilla, dated 1640
copper, oil paint 58 x 42 cm
upper right : F. Magdalena Sibilla H.Z.S.H. 1640
Julius Böhler (München) 1937-10-28, nr. 183

Jacob van Doort and Hans Gudewerdt (II)
Portrait of Adolph, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1600-1631), c. 1620
canvas, oil paint 132 x 109 cm
upper left : Adolphvs Dvx. s: et Holsatiae. Mdc. xx.
Schleswig, Kulturstiftung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein - Schloss Gottorf, inv./ 1985/573

attributed to Jacob van Doort
Portrait of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorf (1597-1659), dated 1621
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
upper right : Von Gottes Gnaden Friedrich Herzog zu Schleswig-Holstein [...]
Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

attributed to Jacob van Doort
Portrait of Frederick Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1591-1634), c. 1620
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
upper right : Von Gottes Gnaden Friedrich Ulrich Hertzogk zu Braunschweig und Lüneburgk
Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

More important is Wolfgang Heimbach (1613/16-1678) [10].11 He received his training in the Netherlands around 1635. Subsequently he worked some years in Germany, almost ten years in Italy and on his way back, late 1651 or early 1652, again in Holland (and Brussels). Then he worked in 1665-1667 as a court painter in Copenhagen, with short intermissions (1665-1666) in Oldenburg at the court of Count Günther [11], before dying in Ovelgönne.12

His early genre paintings of 1636-1637 are essentially dependent upon the Haarlem and Amsterdam guardroom painters, in particular Willem Cornelisz. Duyster [12-14].13 He loved artificial light effects, which we know from the Utrecht school. But for example in a work in Dublin [15]14 these effects can also have been conveyed by the Rembrandt school, perhaps by works of Leonaert Bramer and Dirck Dircksz. Santvoort (1609-1680), such as The supper at Emmaus of 1633 in the Louvre [16]. In Italy he remains more or less faithful to the Dutch model (Honthorst, Fetti, Saraceni).

Wolfgang Heimbach
Self-portrait of Wolfgang Heimbach (c. 1613/1616-c. 1678), dated 1660
panel, oil paint 26,3 x 20 cm
topside, right of the middle : Wolffg. Heimbach. / Conterfey (er?) 1660.
Münster, LWL - Museum für Kunst und Kultur, inv./ 2037 LM

Wolfgang Heimbach
Portrait of Count Anton Günther of Oldenburg (1583-1667), c. 1664
panel, oil paint 25,6 x 19,6 cm
Copenhagen, The Royal Danish Collection - Rosenborg Castle, inv./ 728

Wolfgang Heimbach
Merry company in an inn, dated 1637
panel, oil paint 39 x 58 cm
lower right : Wolfgangh Heimbach/... fecit /1637
Paul Graupe (Berlin) 1935-01-25 - 1935-01-26, nr. 28

Wolfgang Heimbach after Willem Cornelisz. Duyster
Soldiers by a fire, c. 1634
panel (oak), oil paint 48 x 36,5 cm
lower left : HMB
Flensburg, Städtisches Museum Flensburg, inv./ 20468

Willem Cornelisz. Duyster
Soldiers by a fire, c. 1630
panel (oak), oil paint 45 x 33,8 cm
Schwerin, Staatliches Museum Schwerin, inv./ G29

Wolfgang Heimbach
An evening meal, second half 1630s
panel (oak), oil paint 38,4 x 28,7 cm
on the back : BooR P. Klaesz.
Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland, inv./ NGI.610

Dirck Dircksz. Santvoort
The supper at Emmaus, dated 1633
panel, oil paint 67 x 51 cm
lower center : DV Santvoort f. 1633
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 1828

After his return to the North he rather endorses Pieter de Hooch and his circle, without abandoning candlelight painting completely. The interior paintings, although uneven in execution and composed after ever changing models, are the most charming. The Family kitchen (painted in Italy!) of 1648 [17] would do full credit to an Isaac Koedijck.15

A biblical scene of 1657 [18] looks like a work of one of the Pre-Rembrandtists.16 A guardroom scene of 1665 (Museum Oldenburg) echoes a composition of David Teniers II [19].17 His portraits [20] are weaker than those of the court painters working in Denmark at the time, such as Abraham Wuchters. Heimbach is a pleasant, receptive, but dependent German painter from the province. He emulates the Dutch model constantly, but lacks technical skill and painterly feeling, which make his paintings look a bit dry and unsophisticated. Outside the borders the painting culture of the Netherlands gets lost quickly, particularly when individuals strive for it, rather than being supported by a mutually stimulating community.18

Wolfgang Heimbach
A family in a kitchen doing household tasks, dated 1648
canvas, oil paint 58 x 78 cm
lower left : CHMP fec: / W / fec./1648
Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, inv./ GM 1346

Wolfgang Heimbach
Arrival of the holy family at Nazareth (Matthew 2), dated 1657
canvas, oil paint 110 x 80 cm
lower center : CHMP/W feci/c
Oldenburg (Niedersachsen), Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg

Wolfgang Heimbach after David Teniers (II)
Guard room with officers playing cards, dated 1678
canvas, oil paint 50 x 66 cm
left center : CWH 1678
Oldenburg (Niedersachsen), Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg

Wolfgang Heimbach
Portrait of a gentleman, dated 164.
copper, oil paint 22 x 18 cm
location unknown : W..bach A 164.
Dorotheum (Vienna) 2003-10-01, nr. 425

Much more ‘Dutchificated’ than Heimbach was Jürgen Ovens (1623-1678).19 Since the early 1640s he was in Amsterdam, where he is mentioned as a pupil of Rembrandt.20 He stayed there for many years. Only in 1651 he returned to Holstein, where he mainly worked for the Duke of Gottorf [21-22]. His activity as a court painter brought him to Stockholm in 1654. In a series of paintings he captured the festivities on the occasion of the marriage of the Holstein Princess Hedwig Eleonore of Gottorf with King Charles X Gustav of Sweden [23-24].21 From 1657 until 1663 we find him for a second time in Amsterdam and finally from 1663 again in Friedrichstadt, where he executed many portraits and altarpieces for German and Danish clients.

Jürgen Ovens
Self-portrait, c. 1652
canvas, oil paint 64,6 x 55 cm
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./ HK-26

Jürgen Ovens
Portrait of duke Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (1597-1659), late 1650s
copper, oil paint 17 x 16 cm
Schleswig, Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, inv./ 1988/1260

Jürgen Ovens
Allegory on the crowning of queen Hedwig Eleonora of Sweden (1636-1715) by the goddess Minerva, dated August 1654
canvas, oil paint 105 x 78 cm
lower right : I. OVENS f. 1654 Mense Augusto
Stockholm, Nationalmuseum Stockholm, inv./ NMGrh 1222

Jürgen Ovens
The marriage of princess Hedwig Eleonore of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf with the Swedish king Charles X Gustav on 24 October 1654, c. 1655-1657
canvas, oil paint 212 x 306 cm
lower left : Ovens. f.
Stockholm, Nationalmuseum Stockholm, inv./ NM 908

Govert Flinck and Jürgen Ovens
The Midnight Conspiracy of the Batavians under Claudius Civilis (Tacitus, Historiae IV, 13-15, 61), November 1659-February 1660 and September 1662
canvas, oil paint 550 x 550 cm
Amsterdam, Koninklijk Paleis (Paleis op de Dam)

Incidentally, while in Amsterdam he had not lacked assignments either. He painted portraits and history paintings, among others The conspiracy of the Batavians under Claudius Civilis for the Town Hall [25]22 as a replacement for the refused work by Rembrandt. Ovens absorbed different foreign, Dutch and Flemish influences in his works. Rembrandt’s spirit and atmosphere is still clearly visible in his portrait of Nicolaes Tulp (Six Collection, Amsterdam) [26], that must have been painted around 1645, during his first stay in Amsterdam.23 Strangely enough the influence of Van Dyck predominates in an earlier painting from 1642 [27].24 Anyway, his portraits turn out best. His works from the 1650s and early 1660s look like the late works of Rembrandt-pupils such as Lievens, Bol and Maes. Some recall clearly the style of portraits painters like Bartholomeus van der Helst, Luttichuys and Jonson van Ceulen.

As a painter Ovens in no way took a back seat to his Dutch colleagues. He is far superior to an artist like Heimbach. Only the late works that originated in Friedrichstadt [28] become dry and arid. When his painterly routine declines, the eclecticism ̶ the mixing and adopting of Flemish, Dutch and even Italian forms ̶ turns particularly unpleasant. Apart from that, Ovens is an important figure in the expansion of the classic Dutch portrait style and of Rembrandt’s chiaroscuro in North Germany and Denmark. Since he was a productive artist and highly regarded in his own country, one should not underestimate his importance as an agent of Dutch cultural assets.

Jürgen Ovens
Portrait of Nicolaes Tulp (1593-1674), dated 1658
canvas, oil paint 126 x 99 cm
lower center : J. OVENS f. / NICOLAUS. / TULPIUS / 1658.
Amsterdam, Six Stichting, inv./ 34

Jürgen Ovens
Portrait of a young man, dated 1642
panel, oil paint 71,8 x 60 cm
: A. 1642 JOv...
Evansville (Indiana), History and Science Evansville Museum of Arts, inv./ L90.299

Jürgen Ovens
Duke Christian Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (1641-1694) and his wife, duchess Frederica Amalia (1649-1704), in a pastoral landscape, c. 1667
canvas, oil paint 134 x 173 cm
Hillerød, The National Museum of History Frederiksborg Castle

We know less of Heinrich Jansen (1625-1667) of Flensburg.25 He came to Holland in 1645 and was Rembrandt’s pupil for three years. Then he returned to Flensburg, before he started out on a long journey in 1651 that took him to the Netherlands, Spain and Italy. Since he worked for several years (1657-1661) for the Danish court, we will encounter him again in our chapter on Denmark.26 Apart from copies after Rembrandt, we only know some paintings and drawings in Dutch style [29-31].27

Heinrich Jansen
Bearing of Christ's body to the grave, dated 1648
panel, oil paint 140 x ? cm
lower left : Jansonius inv. et fecit 1648
Flensburg, Marienkirche (Flensburg)

Heinrich Jansen
Epitapg of burgomaster Carsten Beyer (1574-1644) with crucifixion, c. 1648
panel, oil paint ? x ? cm
upper left : HEN : jansen / fecit:
Flensburg, Marienkirche (Flensburg)

Heinrich Jansen after Lanfranco
Epitaph of Johann Wittenmaken (1608-1676) met Christ saving Peter from drowning, dated 1656
panel, oil paint ? x ? cm
lower center : Heinrich Jansen fec Anno 1656
Flensburg, Marienkirche (Flensburg)

Also of Broder Matthisen († 1666) we only know a small group of works, although we can follow his life path quite accurately on the basis of payments by the court of Gottorf.28 Two still-lifes, one in Dresden [32], the other in Schwerin [33], give away a connection with the Leiden school, in particular with Willem de Poorter en Jan Vermeulen.29 An etching of an old man [34] closely imitates Rembrandt.30 One might assume that he spent time in Holland. For the Danish court he painted a ‘little kitchen piece’ in 1655 and in Berlin, where he stayed on and off, some portraits.31

So Rembrandt’s art is not represented very impressively in Holstein, despite Ovens, Jansen and Matthisen. One portrait by Ovens’ brother 32 Friedrich Adolf Ovens (1657-1699) has surfaced [35], which looks Dutch.33 Nor has another Ovens follower, Barthold Conrad (1657-1719), who created an epitaph in 1708 [36], carried Rembrandt’s art into the 18th century.34

Broder Matthisen
Vanitas still life with unfolded books, musical instruments, precious vessels and a globe, c. 1664
canvas, oil paint 138 x 119 cm
left : Mathisen fecit
Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, inv./ 1996 A

Broder Matthisen
Still life with columbine cup, brandy bowl and fruit on a covered table, dated 1664
canvas, oil paint 66,5 x 62,5 cm
upper right : BRODERVS MATHISEN PIN 1664
Schwerin, Staatliches Museum Schwerin, inv./ 391

Broder Matthisen
Old man with a beard, dated 1644
paper, etching 80 x 64 mm
upper right : B. Math. fec. 1644
Copenhagen, SMK - National Gallery of Denmark, inv./ KKSgb10707

Friedrich Adolf Ovens
Portrait of a boy with a dog in a landscape, dated 1681
canvas, oil paint 127 x 102 cm
lower left : Friederic Adolph / Ovens fecit 1681 / mense Aug.
Flensburg, Städtisches Museum Flensburg, inv./ 21083

Barthold Conrad
Let the children come unto me (Matthew 19:13-15); Portrait Historié of Christiana Wolff (1682-1708) and her family, c. 1708-1710
canvas, oil paint 185 x 225 cm
: B. Conrad pinxit
Tellingstedt, St. Martins-Kirche (Tellingstedt)

Naturally the Gottorf court did not only employ portrait painters. A Johann Liss, painter from Schleswig, was paid for decorative work in 1622.35 In 1652 a landscape by Govert Camphuysen (1623/24-1672) was acquired; the painter must have travelled to Sweden through Gottorf.36 In this context we must recall that Friedrichstadt at the Eider was a Dutch colony of Remonstrants, created by Duke Friedrich III (1597-1659).37 Along with Dutch architects, merchants and clergymen, perhaps also the love for Dutch paintings moved into this town. Almost all Gottorf court painters mentioned up to now also painted in and for Friedrichstadt. Ovens died here and one of his last paintings is kept in the Sankt Christopherus Kirche [37].38 In the Town Hall on the other hand is one of the earliest works that originated under Dutch influence: the portrait of two young couples in the style of Willem Buytewech [38].39

Jürgen Ovens
The lamentation of Christ (Luke 23, 53), dated 1675
canvas, oil paint 233 x 217 cm
lower right : J. Ovens. f. / Ao. Christi. / 1675
Friedrichstadt (an der Eider), Sankt Christopherus Kirche

manner of Willem Buytewech (I)
Portrait of two couples standing in front of a colonnade, first quarter 17th century
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
Friedrichstadt (an der Eider), Rathaus Friedrichstadt

Ovens himself possessed a very handsome collection, including Dutch, Flemish and Italian paintings; only Rembrandt’s work was not represented.40 In Holland he acquired paintings and prints for the ducal court, among other things ‘the most beautiful work by P. Lastman ever seen in the country’ [39].41 In 1627 a resident of Friedrichstadt bought a ‘Storm by Porcellis’42 -- it is needless to list separately the many reports on purchases of paintings in the course of 17th century. Even in 1706 a bust of the deceased royal highness painted by the ‘chief court painter Ludwig Weyandt43 was sent to Holland to have it engraved [40]. The drawing for the ornamentation was sent along.44

All in all one can agree with the local connoisseur Ernst Obsen George (1894-1970) : ‘we observe here a consistent impact of a higher and more evolved culture on a peripheral, but receptive region’ (in translation).45 The land of Oldenburg and its court withdrew clearly behind Schleswig. Heimbach was the pride of the country which Jan Liss abandoned. In 1651 we hear from a certain Gerrit Plomp from the land of Oldenburg, who got reimbursed fl. 18 for travel expenses in Utrecht. No communication on the destination of this Plomp has survived.46 The painter Jan de Baen ‘from Emden’ painted the portrait of the Count of Aldenburg, son of the ruling Count Anton Günter [41]. Probably he also visited Oldenburg.

Pieter Lastman
The battle between Constantine and Maxentius, dated 1613
canvas, oil paint 161,5 x 170 cm
lower left : P. Lastman. fecit 1613
Bremen, Kunsthalle Bremen, inv./ 251-1903/4

Pieter van Gunst after Ludwig Weyandt
Portrait of Friedrich IV. (1671-1702), Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf, c. 1705
paper 385 x 278 mm
Kiel, Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek - Landesgeschichtliche Sammlung

Jan de Baen
Portrait of Anton I von Aldenburg (1633-1680), dated 1664
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
lower right : De Baen pinx. 1664.
Private collection


1 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1916-1917; Riewerts 1932, in which the models are compiled with great care and prudence. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Many images of epitaphs by Marten van Achten in the Bildindex der Kunst & Architektur.

2 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Johan van Enum II: Riewerts 1936. Two epitaphs by him  in St. Marien in Flensburg (Gräve/Puts 2007, p. 4, 10-11, 29-30, ill.). see also Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 2.9.

3 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fuglsang 1932. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schulte-Wülwer 1989, p. 4-5, no. 4, ill.

4 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On several occasions (1757, 1831) paintings have been transferred from Husum castle to Denmark; most of them were lost in the fire of Frederiksborg in 1859 (Eller 1970). However, Weilbach mentions surviving works in Frederiksborg, which we were unable to retrieve. Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 2.9, note 16, ill.

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] On Willem Pijl: Schmidt 1916, p. 272 and Schmidt 1917, p. 84-85. [Van Leeuwen 2017] We could not find the name Jacob Peter Davids.

6 [Gerson 1942/1983] For example the Portrait of Frederik II and his spouse at Frederiksborg, no. 667/8 (as school of Geert Dircksen). Portrait of Magdalena Sybilla, auction Munich 28 October 1937, no. 183, ill.

7 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 2.9.

8 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schmidt 1916, p. 269-271 ; Schmidt 1917, p. 253-259. Steneberg 1934, p. 250-252, 253-255, ill ; Spielmann/Drees/Kuhl 1997, p. 171, 309, ill; Borggrefe/Fusenig 2011. The two portraits in Dresden were destroyed in 1945.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schmidt 1916, p. 281; Schmidt 1917, p. 90. On the activity of Gerrit Uylenburgh in Holstein: Lammertse 2006, p. 63. Lammertse assumes that the name David Uylenburgh is an error, or maybe the youngest child of Henrick Uylenburgh and Maria van Eyck.

10 [Van Leeuwen 2017] De Quiter was paid for five paintings he sold (Schmidt 1916, p. 283). On Voorhout: § 2.3.

11 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schlüter-Göttsche 1935. I completely agree with the author of the review of     Schlüter-Göttsche 1935 (Goering 1937). The tendency of the book to indicate the weakness of the artist ̶ his dryness and stiffness ̶ as typical German forms of expression should be rejected entirely. It does not serve the reputation of German art, that also produced remarkable talents in that century. [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Heimbach: Schlüter-Göttsche 1966, Bencard 1980, Morsbach 1999. Morsbach 2008, esp. p. 160-166, 276-296. For the Gerson Digital project the complete RKD documentation on Heimbach (more than 100 artworks) has been digitized (see RKDimages). Justus Lange will lecture on Heimbach at the symposium Masters of Mobility. Cultural Exchange between the Netherlands and Germany in the long 17th Century (to be published in 2018).

12 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Heimbach in Denmark: Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 2.12

13 [Van Leeuwen 2017] He actually copied a painting attributed to Duyster, now in Schwerin.

14 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Oldfield/Mayes 1987, p. 31-32, no. 610, fig. 15.

15 [Van Leeuwen 2017] The painting was bought by the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in 1935 from art dealer Curt Benedict in Paris (Tacke 1995, p. 102-103, no. 45, ill.).

16 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Also this painting was on the art market when Gerson wrote his text; it was acquired by the Stadtmuseum Oldenburg in 1939 (on display in the Landesmuseum Oldenburg in 2016). See also Gerson 1946A, p. 9, ill.

17 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Morsbach mentions comparable compositions by Teniers (Morsbach 1999, p. 92-93, p. 191-192, no. AI 39, ill. in color p. 193), but no direct source can be indicated.

18 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On the tremendous production of paintings in the Netherlands and competition: Sluijter 2003, esp. p. 14-17.

19 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1922 and H. Schmidt in Thieme/Becker 1907-1950, vol. 26 (1932), p. 103. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schlüter-Göttsche 1978;  Sumowski 1983-1984, vol. 3 (1983), p. 2218-2306; Larsson 2003; Köster 2017; PhD research by Patrick Larsen; an article on Ovens by Larsen will be included in Masters of Mobility. Cultural Exchange between the Netherlands and Germany in the long 17th Century (to be published in 2020).

20 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Houbraken mentions that Ovens was a pupil of Rembrandt (Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 1, p. 273-274). Although it is commonly assumed (f.i. by Sumowski 1983-1994, vol. 3 [1983] p. 2218), there are no other sources. Stylistically there is little influence of Rembrandt to be found in his work (communication Patrick Larsen, 2016).

21 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Probably made in Friedrichstadt, the last two on the basis of a sketch he had made during the wedding. Sumowski 1983-1994, vol. 3 (1983), p. 2225-2226, nos. 1487-1489.

22 [Van Leeuwen 2017] The painting was mainly done by Flinck; after his death, Ovens completed the painting in four days to ‘eene volcomene ordonnantie’ in September 1662. According to a city account of 2 January 1663, he received 48 guilders for his work (Sumowski 1983-1994, vol. 2 [1983], p. 1027, no. 641, ill.).

23 [Van Leeuwen 2017] The portrait is dated 1658 and originated during Ovens’ second stay in Amsterdam: Schmidt 1922, p. 190, no. 259.

24 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1922, p. 210-211, no. 345, fig. 2.

25 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Sumowski 1983-1994, vol. 2 (1983), p. 1418-1433. The information on Jansen’s life is based on a document in the Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen. In the gallery archives it is kept in a box labeled ‘Notitser vedrørende ældre danske Kunstnere’, i.e. notes regarding early Danish artists, mainly written or copied out by the archivist Christian Eberhard Voss (1706-1791). Voss’ notes seem to have been used and added to later by 19th century art historians, yet the page concerning Jansen appears to be in Voss’ own hand. The source is, however, unclear (communication Jesper Svenningsen, January 2016). Transcription also in Sumowski, but transcribed again by Michiel Roscam Abbing, using a PDF of the document as well as Sumowski. This transcription reads:

26 [Van Leeuwen 2017] See Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 2.12.

27 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Jansen: Sumoskwi 1983-1984, vol. 2, p. 1418-1433; Gräve/Pust 2007, p. 4, 13-16, 21-29; examples in RKDimages. Three epitaphs are found in the Marienkirche in Flensburg; two are (1648 and c. 1648) done in the style of the Rembrandt school; the third originated after his trip to Italy and Spain (1656) and is modelled after Lanfranco’s Novicella altarpiece (Sumowski 1983-1994, vol. 2 [1983], p. 1419, 1421, no. 936, ill.).

28 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1917, p. 335-356. About Thomas Mathisen from Husum: Gerson 1942/1983, p. 467. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 2.12 See also § 2.10.

29 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson erroneously states A. Vermeulen but meant Jan Vermeulen. Schmidt quotes Bode, who stated that Matthisen’s still-lives resembled both Dutch painters (Heda, Pieter Claesz) and Flemish artists (Cornelis Mahu, Clara Peeters), Schmidt 1917, p. 340. According to Fred Meijer (formerly RKD) also reminiscent of Willem Kalf. Another version of the painting of Dresden is in the SMK (Statens Museum for Kunst). According to Meijer, the Copenhagen version is better than the Dresden still-life (RKDimages 255425).

30 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schmidt 2017, p. 340-341, ill.

31 [Van Leeuwen 2017] In the 19th century Frederiksborg Castle seven portraits by Broder Matthisen were listed which came from Husum Castle. Five of them were lost in the fire of 1859 (Schmidt 1917, p. 342-343). More portraits (Gottorf and Flensburg) in RKDimages.

32 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Not Jürgen Ovens’ brother, but his son. Jürgen Ovens also had a son Jorgian, who was baptized 12 September 1662 in Amsterdam (Ecartico).

33 [Gerson 1942/1983] Auction 22 December 1937, no. 75 (dated 1681). [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schmidt 1952. Since 1965 in the Städtische Museum Flensburg (Schulte-Wülwer 1989, p. 244, ill.).

34 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1922, p. 229. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Merckens 2004.

35 [Gerson 1942/1983] Not the painter of the drawing in Hamburg, as Schmidt 1917, p. 313-313, supposes.

36 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Schmidt 1916, p. 280.

37 [Gerson 1942/1983] Pont 1913; Schmidt 1918-1919; Schmidt 1921.

38 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Sumowski 1983-1984, vol. 3 (1983), p. 2231, no. 1516, ill.

39 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1921, p. 20, ill.

40 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1922, p. 61-68; Schmidt 1914.

41 [Gerson 1942/1983] Schmidt 1922, p. 96-97: ‘het frayste dat oyt van P. Lastman in ‘t landt geweest’. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Probably identical with a painting of Lastman bought by Jürgen Ovens from Gerrit Uylenburgh, since 1903 in the Kunsthalle Bremen (Seifert 2011, p. 279-280, no. 3, ill.).

42 [Gerson 1942/183] Lichtwark 1899, p. 17; Lichtwark 1898, vo. 1, p. 86.

43 [Gerson 1942/1983] ‘Ober Hoff Mahler Ludwig Weyandt’ (Schmidt 1916-2017, vol. 1, p. 252-261).

44 [Gerson 1942/1983] A signed and 1697 dated portrait is in Rosenborg Castle, 2538. For the print after Weyandts: Nagler 1904-1914. Further: Schmidt 1916; Schmidt 1917A.

45 [Gerson 1942/1983] ‘Wir beobachten hier das folgerichtige Ausstrahlen einer überlegenen und entwickelteren Kultur auf ein abseits gelegenes, aber aufnahmefahiges Gebiet’ (George 1923, p. 257).

46 [Gerson 1942/1983] Van der Willigen 1870, p. 36. [Van Leeuwen 2017] The payment was made 6 February 1651. Ecartico (consulted in 2016) mentions his marriage on 21 October of the same year to Hendrickie Pieters in Amsterdam.

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