Gerson Digital : Germany I


1.4 The Rhine Travellers

Some artists, such as Hercules Segers (1589/90-after 1633 before 1640), Josua de Grave (1643-1712) [1], Constantijn Huygens II (1628-1697) [2-5], Jan Pietersz. Lastman (1628/29-1691/92) [6-7] and Valentijn Klotz (c. 1650-1721)[8] wandered through the Maas valley into the Lower Rhine region.1 Jan van de Velde II (1593-1641) followed the river Niers and was also in Düren [9-10].2

Josua de Grave
View of Aachen with the church of St. Salvator, from the mountain Lousberg, dated 30 August 1669
paper, pen (technique), washed 155 x 202 mm
upper left : 1: S: Salvator by Aechen/2: T Huys te Franckenburgh : 1669:8/30/3: de Stadt Aechen/4: Sanckel Poort (Sandkaultor)/ 5: S. Pieter 6: de Regulieren
Aachen, Museum Burg Frankenberg

Constantijn Huygens (II)
View of Königshoven with the church of St. Peter, dated 26 October 1673
paper, pen in brown ink, washed 108 x 161 mm
in verso : Koningshoven 26 octob. 1673
Leiden, Universitaire bibliotheken Leiden - Bijzondere collecties, inv./ PK-T-AW-12

Constantijn Huygens (II)
Panorama with view of Solingen to the left, Cologne centre right and the Siebengebirge at utmost right, probably 27 October 1673
paper, pen in brown ink 195 x 340 mm
left center : Solingen
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv./ 9164

Constantijn Huygens (II)
View of the city of Düren, seen from the South, October/November 1673
paper, pen (technique), washed 107 x 138 mm
upper left : de Stadt düren A
Düren, Leopold-Hoesch-Museum, inv./ 1964/4000

Constantijn Huygens (II)
View of Bonn, from the South-West, dated 9 November 1673
paper, pen in brown ink, blue and brown wash 170 x 344 mm
lower center : Int leger voor Bonn. 9. nov. 1673
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ 1897 A 3458

possibly Jan Pietersz. Lastman or attributed to Pieter Lastman
View of the surroundings of Wassenberg
paper, chalk, washed 153 x 197 mm
: Buycle by Wassenborg
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 22724

possibly Jan Pietersz. Lastman or attributed to Pieter Lastman
View of the surroundings of Badorf near Brühl
paper, chalk, washed 153 x 183 mm
upper center : Boesdorf by Cöln
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 22724

Valentijn Klotz
View of Aachen with on the left St. Salvator, and to the right St. Peter, the Sandkaultor and the castle Frankenberg, c. 1670
paper, pen (technique), washed 200 x 320 mm
Aachen, Museum Burg Frankenberg

Jan van de Velde (II)
View of a church in a landscape, possibly the church of Distelrath near Düren
light red-brown washed paper, pen (technique), washed 75 x 162 mm
upper center : düren
Berlin, Schinkel-Museum

Jan van de Velde (II)
Tower on the bank of the river Niers, shortly before/in 1616
paper, pen in brown ink, brown wash 162 x 228 mm
Galerie Gerda Bassenge (Berlin) 2014-05-29 - 2014-05-31, nr. 6265

Jan van der Heyden and Adriaen van de Velde
View of Düsseldorf with the church of St. Andrew in the centre, dated 1667
canvas, oil paint 51 x 63,5 cm
lower left : VHeyde A 1667
The Hague, Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, inv./ 53

However, most of them travelled up the Rhine. Jan van der Heyden (1637-1712) certainly came as far as Düsseldorf and Cologne, and possibly even much further. In his case, it was a sort of business trip; he wanted to sell his new inventions of the improved fire engine and street lanterns. That he also captured views of Düsseldorf [11], Cologne [12] and Xanten [13] in his meticulously rendered paintings, which he sometimes enriched with Dutch motifs, was possibly only a subsidiary objective for him.3

The Nationalmuseum in Stockholm contains a pretty view of Cologne, a rare painting by Jan de Vos II (c. 1615-1693)[14].4 The two townscape painters Gerrrit (1638-1698) and Job Berckheyde (1630-1693) also stayed in Cologne [15-16] and in Bonn [17-18],5 and moved on from there to Heidelberg [19], where the Elector Palatine employed them temporarily. They never became court painters in the actual sense of the word.6 The aforementioned Jan Pieterz. Lastman not only drew at the Lower Rhine [20-21], but also at the Neckar.

Jan van der Heyden
View of Cologne, first half 1660s
panel, oil paint 30 x 36 cm
Saint Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage, inv./ 955

Jan van der Heyden and manner of Adriaen van de Velde
Xanthen, square with the church of St. Victor in the background, after 1692
panel, oil paint 45 x 56 cm
lower left : VHeyde
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 1338

Jan de Vos (II)
Shipping on the Rhine river near Cologne, dated 1641
panel, oil paint 32 x 65 cm
lower right : Vos 1641
Stockholm, Nationalmuseum Stockholm, inv./ NM 2495

Gerrit Berckheyde
View of the Sankt Gereon and Sankt Aposteln in Cologne with a market scene, after 1670
panel, oil paint 46,4 x 63,5 cm
lower right : gerrit berkHeyde
Sotheby's (New York City) 2010-01-28, nr. 198

Job Berckheyde
View of the cloister court near St. Gereon, Cologne, 1650s-1653 or second half 1650s
paper, pen (technique), washed 146 x 195 mm
lower left : JG (JG interlaced)
Besançon, Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie de Besançon, inv./ D 463

Gerrit Berckheyde
Saint Martin church in Bonn
canvas, oil paint 53 x 63 cm
lower right : G. Berck Heyde
Schwerin, Staatliches Museum Schwerin, inv./ G 48

Gerrit Berckheyde
Interior of the Münsterbasilika Sankt Martin in Bonn, dated 1662
canvas, oil paint 72,5 x 114 cm
lower left : gerrardus berck.Heyde: f[ecit?] 1662
Bonn, Stadtmuseum Bonn, inv./ G 18

Gerrit Berckheyde
View of Heidelberg with the castle, seen from the opposite bank of the Neckar river, dated 1670
canvas, oil paint 62 x 95 cm
lower left : berckheyde 1670 (?)
Heidelberg (Germany), Kurpfälzisches Museum

possibly Jan Pietersz. Lastman or attributed to Pieter Lastman
View of the surroundings of Wassenberg
paper, chalk, washed 153 x 197 mm
: Buycle by Wassenborg
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 22724

possibly Jan Pietersz. Lastman or attributed to Pieter Lastman
View of the surroundings of Badorf near Brühl
paper, chalk, washed 153 x 183 mm
upper center : Boesdorf by Cöln
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 22724

Although, as we have seen, a large number of the travellers to Italy chose the route through France or across the sea, many others followed ‘father’ Rhine up to Basel (or at least Mainz), where different paths brought them through the dangerous Alps.7 Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617) embarked for Hamburg in 1590, wandered incognito throughout Germany and did not arrive in Rome until 1591. He returned home via Germany as well.8 Gerard ter Borch I (1582/83-1662) took the direct route via Cologne [22] 9 and went through France on his way back. David Bailly (1584-1657) took more time. Like Goltzius, he first moved to Hamburg , where he worked for a year, then via Frankfurt, Nuremberg, Augsburg, through Tirol to Venice and Rome, where he left again in 1610; only in 1613 was he back in his homeland. Orlers reported that he worked at several courts during his trip home, but that he was not willing to stay anywhere: the Duke of Brunswick tried to engage him in vain.10 According to De Bie, Leonaert Bramer (1596-1674) was in also Germany; perhaps on the return journey from Rome?11

Now we finally have the opportunity to see the travel party of Vincent Laurenz. van der Vinne I (1628-1702) setting out from Haarlem12 on August 21st 1652. The crew consisted of Van der Vinne [23-24], Dirck Helmbreeker (1633-1696) [25] and Guillam Du Bois (1623/25-1680) [26], who is mentioned in the diary as ‘gilljaeme de bos’. They went straight to Cologne, to a master Abraham Cuyper. Dirck Helmbreeker returned home after a few days, while after about a month, the two others continued their trip along the Rhine. They made many drawings in Heidelberg, where they stayed for nine weeks. But after ‘perceiving that the people were more interested in repairing their houses, than in painting’, they went back to Cologne.13 That winter they worked for Cuyper again and later for a certain Bernard Kemp. A month after Du Bois returned to Holland as well in March 1653, Van der Vinne set off again, this time in the company of Joost Boelen, a shoemaker. They went along the Rhine, partly on foot, partly by boat. In Frankfurt they met with the painter Cornelis Bega (1631/32-1664) [27], who accompanied them as far as Switzerland. In impoverished Germany there was not much to earn but in Switzerland they enjoyed ‘a life of luxury’. Particularly with portrait commissions they could manage handsomely for quite some time. Travelling through Dijon, Lyon, Paris and Le Havre Van der Vinne finally reached his homeland again in August 1655.

Gerard ter Borch (I) after Augustin Braun
Rape of Lucretia, dated 1603
paper 90 x 133 mm
bottom left of the middle : Augus: Braun/ in Collen An°/ 1603/ Copye
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum

Vincent Laurensz. van der Vinne (I)
Landscape along the Rhine, 1652/1653
paper, black chalk 195 x 306 mm
upper right : 35
Haarlem, Gemeentearchief Haarlem, inv./ MS. 231

Vincent Laurensz. van der Vinne (I)
View of Kaub with the castle Gutenfels and the Pfalz, after 1655
paper, pen (technique), grey wash 198 x 298 mm
upper center : Palts
Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn

Dirck Helmbreeker
Self-portrait of Dirck Helmbreecker (1633-1696), c. 1650
paper, red chalk 291 x 208 mm
lower left : Helmbreeck.
Weimar (Thüringen), Stiftung Weimarer Klassik und Kunstsammlungen, inv./ KK 5191

Guillam Du Bois
Mountain landscape with travellers, dated 16[5]4
panel, oil paint 36 x 32 cm
lower center : G. de Bois 16[5]4
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ SK-A-3115

Cornelis Bega
Self portrait of Cornelis Pietersz. Bega (1631/32-1664), c. 1650
paper, oil paint 187 x 172 mm
Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, inv./ 3554

We can also exactly follow the track of Lambert Doomer (1624-1700). Although he did not write a diary nor employ a diarist, as he did on his French journey, we can read from his detailed annotated sheets where he had been. Repeatedly he was in Cleves [28] and across Elten [29], Calcar [30], Anraht [31],14 and Mönchengladbach [32]. His trip went to Cologne [33], then along the Rhine until Switzerland, the outward journey through Maursmünster and the way back via Augsburg, or the other way around. This trip must have taken place between 1654 and 1658,15 but also later in his career he drew Rhine landscapes and memories of Switzerland. Those sheets that originated in the homeland are pale and toneless.16

Lambert Doomer
View of Cleves seen from a hill in the South, the River Rhine visible before and beyond the town, 1663
paper, pen in brown ink, brown wash, framing line in pen in brown ink 220 x 361 mm
in verso : Der [?] Stat [?] Cleef
London (England), British Museum, inv./ Oo,10.173

Lambert Doomer
Convent at Hochelten, Germany, 1663
paper, pen in brown ink, brown, grey and green wash 229 x 361 mm
in verso : Doomer f.
Private collection

Lambert Doomer
Kalkar as seen from the Monterberg, c. 1670-1672
paper, black chalk, pen and brush in brown, yellowish green and grey wash, red-brown wash 235 x 409 mm
in verso : De Stad Kalker van den Monteren bergh af te zien met de Elterenbergh
Private collection

Lambert Doomer
Dymbkes gate at Anrath, entrance gate to the town beneath a long gate-house, with three figures on the road near the foreground, 1663
paper, pen in brown ink, brown and grey wash, graphite, brown and yellow wash, framing line in pen in brown ink 149 x 187 mm
upper center : dijmbkes poort tot Anraet
London (England), British Museum, inv./ 1895,0915.1147

Lambert Doomer
Mönchengladbach, seen from the south, c. 1663
paper, black chalk, pen in brown ink, brush in grey-blue, brush in grey and green, brush in brown, framing line in pen in black ink 244 x 399 mm
in verso : Munneke Glebbeck
Paris, Fondation Custodia - Collection Frits Lugt, inv./ 5841

Lambert Doomer
Cologne cathedral, seen from the northwest, c. 1663
paper, pen in brown ink, grey-blue and brown wash 257 x 383 mm
in verso : Den Dom te Keulen
Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv./ MB 171

Jan Hackaert (1628-after 1685) went up the Rhine on his way to Switzerland and to Italy in 1653 [34].17 In 1661 Willem Schellinks (1627-1678) and Jacob Thierry left Amsterdam for a great journey that would last for four years. They went to England, France, Italy, Germany and Switzerland. A broad and comprehensive travel diary of more than 1,000 pages (in Copenhagen and Oxford), which Houbraken already knew about and used, informs us of all their experiences. Many sketches of Doomer, Hackaert, Schellinks, Saftleven [35] and several others are found today in the so-called Atlas Blaeu of the Austrian National Library, which was compiled by Laurens van der Hem (1621-1678). Some artists appear even to have travelled on behalf of and at the expense of Van der Hem, from others he bought their travel drawings after they returned home.18

Jan Hackaert
Landscape surrounding the Via Mala trail, July 1655
paper, pen in brown ink, brown and grey wash 200 x 148 mm
lower left : IH
Leiden, Universitaire bibliotheken Leiden - Bijzondere collecties, inv./ PK-T-AW-1039

Herman Saftleven
View of the convent of Elten, c. 1651
light brown prepared paper, black chalk, brown wash, heightened in white 500 x 660 mm
lower right : HS
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, inv./ 30:21; f. 33-34

The brothers Jan (1654-1727) and Jacob van Bunnik (†1725) stayed in Frankfurt with Matthäus Merian II (1621-1687) and then, like the Berckheydes, spent some time in Heidelberg and Speyer, where they worked for the Elector Palatine. Jacobus Storck (1641-after 1692) certainly had been in Speyer [37-38] on his way to Venice,19 and we are also familiar with the Rhine views of his brother Abraham (1644-1708) [36].

Jan van Call I (1656-1706) left behind a large number of finely drawn cityscapes from Germany (he went as far as the Baltic Sea) [39-42],20 Switzerland and Italy.21

Abraham Storck
View of Bonn from the Rhein river, dated 1674
canvas, oil paint 75,5 x 107 cm
lower left : ...
Bonn, Kunstmuseum Bonn

Jacobus Storck
View of the city of Speyer along the Rhine
paper, pen in brown ink, grey wash 197 x 314 mm
upper center : Spier aan den Reijn
Brussels, Koninklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van België, inv./ 2851

Jacobus Storck
View of the cathedral of Speyer, dated 1683
canvas, oil paint 65 x 51,5 cm
lower left : J Storck Ao.1683
Phillips Auctioneers (London (England)) 1996-07-02, nr. 175

Jan van Call (I)
View of the river Rhine with the village of Oberwesel and the Castle Rheinfels
paper, black chalk, pen in grey ink, brush in color 105 x 105 mm
Nijmegen, Museum Het Valkhof, inv./ 2005.82

Jan van Call (I)
Castle Ehrenbreitstein
paper, pen in brown ink, brush in color (water color) 345/278 x 395/278 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-1921-6

Jan van Call (I)
View of the castle of the great elector in Berlin, c. 1690
paper, pen in brown ink, brush in color (water color) 243 x 243 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-1921-7

Jan van Call (I)
Siege of Stettin, 1677
paper, pen (technique), washed ? x ? mm
Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin

Fairly unknown is the sketchbook of a Rhine trip by Johannes Vinckboons (1616/17-1670), who never came further than the Lower Rhine area [43-47].22

J. Finckenbaum or possibly Justus Vinckboons
View of the large St. Martin with the herring storage and the fish hall, c. 1664-1665
paper, pen (technique), sepia ink, washed 150 x 200 mm
upper left : S. marini Kirch am rein binnen Coellen
Cologne, Kölnisches Stadtmuseum, inv./ HM 1908/69

J. Finckenbaum or possibly Justus Vinckboons
External view of the Monretor (gate) at Kalkar, c. 1664-1665
paper, pen (technique), sepia ink, washed 150 x 200 mm
upper left : fb:
Cologne, Kölnisches Stadtmuseum

J. Finckenbaum or Justus Vinckboons
View of the church of St. Maria im Kapitol in Cologne, c. 1664-1665
paper, pen (technique), sepia ink, washed 150 x 200 mm
upper left : s: pantalion/s: marien im Kapitol
Cologne, Kölnisches Stadtmuseum

J. Finckenbaum or Justus Vinckboons
View of the church of St. Pantaleon in Cologne with a procession taking place in the foreground, c. 1664-1665
paper, pen (technique), sepia ink, washed 150 x 200 mm
upper left : das UhrA[lte?] closer .abtey. s pantalion in coelln
Cologne, Kölnisches Stadtmuseum

J. Finckenbaum or possibly Justus Vinckboons
View of the church of St. Peter and St.Cäcilien in Cologne with burghers and clergyman on a stroll in the foreground, c. 1664-1665
paper, pen (technique), sepia ink, washed 150 x 200 mm
upper left : S: petri fa' r[?] kirck und sa[nk]' cilia' closter binnen coellen
Cologne, Kölnisches Stadtmuseum

However, the painter of the Rhine par excellence was Herman Saftleven,23 who came as far as Switzerland. The Dutch poet Joost van den Vondel praised his ‘Kunstboek’ (art book) with views of the Rhine with the words:

Lust het iemand zacht te leven,
Lucht te scheppen naer zijn wil,
Die blijft t’huis, gerust en stil
because with these drawings
Kan de Kunst,
Kan de hand van deze Trecker,
Mij [=nature] dus volgen tot den Necker

Saftleven knew how to cash in on his travels. On the basis of these drawings year after year he painted in Utrecht a considerable number of little, colourful landscapes which were so highly popular that even German painters who had, so to speak, the image of nature itself around the corner, copied and improvised on Saftleven’s motifs of the Rhineland. Via both the Griffiers ̶ Jan Griffier I (1645/52-1718) [48-49] and his son Robert Griffier (1673/77-1760)25 [50] ̶ and Louis Chalon (1687-1741) [51] the tradition passed on to the Schütz family [52] in Frankfurt.26 In the Netherlands Paulus Constantijn la Fargue (1728/29-1782) had to model a series of decorative paintings after Saftleven [53], in order to please his patron.27

Jan Griffier (I)
River valley in the mountains
panel, oil paint 37,0 x 49,1 cm
lower center : J.Griffier
Schwerin, Staatliches Museum Schwerin, inv./ G 370

Jan Griffier (I)
River valley with a village fair
copper, oil paint 52,5 x 66,5 cm
lower right : GRIFFIER
Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, inv./ 1678

Robert Griffier
Mountainous river landscape with a quay and a water mill
canvas, oil paint 39 x 48,5 cm
center right : R. GRIFFIER
Van Ham Kunstauktionen (Keulen) 2003-04-10 - 2003-04-12, nr. 1213

Louis Chalon
River view with ships and cargo, dated 1734
canvas, oil paint 46 x 66 cm
location unknown : L. Chalon 1734
Van Ham Kunstauktionen (Keulen) 2010-05-14, nr. 113

Christian Georg Schütz (I)
Panoramic landscape, dated 1763
panel, oil paint 45 x 53 cm
Würzburg, Kunsthandel Albrecht Neuhaus

Paulus Constantijn la Fargue and Jacob Elias la Fargue and Karel la Fargue after Paulus Constantijn la Fargue
Rhine landscape with a ship in the harbour, 1759-1760
canvas, oil paint 270 x 189 cm
Private collection

Saftleven’s small paintings are mostly inscribed in detail on the reverse; aside from the represented motif, Saftleven indicated where the painting was created: ‘palz Herman Saftleven fecit Utrecht Anno 1665’ or ‘Een Duitsch gezight [a German view] H. Saftleven fecit Utrecht’ [54-55]. The fashion of Rhine landscapes seems to have caught other vedute painters too. There are, for example, late paintings of the Rotterdam artist Claes Jansz. van Willigen (c. 1630-1676) [56-57], which have been executed in Holland.28

All these landscape painters who visited the German lands during their travels and wanderings cannot have exerted a great deal of Dutch influence on artworks produced by painters of their neighbouring country. For that, their stay was way too short and too fleeting.

Herman Saftleven
View of the Middle-Rhine, dated 1664
panel, oil paint 30,4 x 40,8 cm
lower left : HSL 1664
Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv./ 1770

Herman Saftleven
View of the Rhine with sailboats, dated 1664
panel, oil paint 22,6 x 32,1 cm
lower left : HS 1664
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2003-12-11, nr. 69

Claes Jansz. van Willigen
River landscape with a farmhouse near a dirt road
panel, oil paint 73 x 105 cm
lower center : v. Willigen f.
Leo Spik 2011-09-23, nr. 282

Claes Jansz. van Willigen
Mountainous landscape with travellers on a road alongside a river
panel, oil paint 64,8 x 87 cm
Sotheby's (Amsterdam) 2002-05-14, nr. 97


1 [Van Leeuwen 2017] However, no works by Hercules Segers have positively been identified as representing the Lower Rhine region, since most of his compositions are derived from imagination. On De Grave, Klotz and Huygens: Van Hasselt 1965 and Dattenberg 1967.

2 [Van Leeuwen 2017] The drawing that possibly shows Düren, was destroyed in 1940-1945. On drawings of Düren: Appel 1965.

3 [Gerson 1942/1983] Amsterdam 1937; Bredius et al. 1912; Van Eck 1934. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Bikker 2006.

4 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hofstede de Groot 1929. [Van Leeuwen 2017] The painting was attributed to Jan de Vos I until the confusion about four Leiden painters with the same name was solved in Fock/Ekkart 1986.

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] On views of Cologne and Bonn, Clemen/Rahtgens/Krudewig 1911and Clemen/Arntz 1934-1937, Vogts [s.a.], Stechow 1930, also Gerson 1942/1983, p. 251. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Bikker 2006.

6 [Van Leeuwen 2017] See § 2.

7 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On the dangers of crossing the Alps at the time: Mączak 1995, esp. p. 8-11. See also the adventures of Hendrik Vroom, who’s pants froze to a rock, which saved him from falling into a ravine when crossing the Alps from Italy to France (Van Mander 1604, fol. 288r).

8 [Gerson 1942/1983] Van Mander/Floerke 1906, vol, 2, p. 230.

9 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Vey 1964, p. 86-87, fig. 55. On Augustin Braun: § 3.1.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Orlers 1614, p. 371.

11 [Van Leeuwen 2017] De Bie 1662, p. 252.

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] See also Gerson 1942/1983, p. 58, note 1 and p. 354 (on Switzerland). The diary of this trip is located in the Municipal Archive in Haarlem. Dr. A. Welcker, who is preparing a publication, was so kind so give me an insight in his transcription. The diary contains several sketches of visited towns, as well as prints they had bought. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Welcker never published the diary. His transcription is preserved in the RKD, together with a photocopy of Van der Vinne’s diary of the archive in Haarlem ( ). Caljé-van den Berg 1973; Sliggers/Van der Vinne 1979; W. Schulz in Honnef/Weschenfelder/Haberland 1992, p. 149-149, 341, no. 89-94, ill.

13 [Gerson 1942/1983] ‘Maer merckende dat de luyden meer lust, om hare huysen te repareeren hadde als tot de schilderkonst…’

14 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Doomer’s father Herman Doomer (c. 1595-1650) came from Anrath (Van Eeghen 1956, p. 136).

15 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson took over the dating of the journey from Vogts 1930 and Dattenberg 1934 (see next note), who based this on an observation in the drawing of the Dome in Cologne in Rotterdam. According to Vogts 1930, p. 24, this view of the Dome must have been made before 1658, because the Dome curia is seen here in its old forms, before it was renewed in simple Renaissance forms in that year by the dean of the Dome, Franz Egon von Fürstenberg (Dattenberg 1934). However, Wolfgang Schulz argued convincingly that Lambert Doomer’s Rhine trip took place in 1663 (Honnef/Weschenfelder/Haberland 1992, p. 155). Schulz 1973.

16 [Gerson 1942/1983] Many images in Hofstede de Groot 1920, p. 8-10; Hofstede de Groot/Spies 1926-1927 ; Spiess 1930; Vogts 1930; Dattenberg 1934; Dattenberg 1938 and Dattenberg 1938A (dating of of the journey!).

17 [Van Leeuwen 2017] In the Alpes Hackaert travelled together with the Swiss artist Conrad Meyer (1618-1689), see f.e. Solar 1979.

18 [Gerson 1942/1983] We cannot go into this interesting question in detail, since it is only loosely connected to the subject of this research. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Meanwhile the Atlas of Van der Hem was the subject of attention many times. Blaeu/Van der Krogt 2016.

19 [Gerson 1942/1983] Bredius 1915-1932, vol. 1 (1915), p. 338.

20 [Gerson 1942/1983] Drawing of the siege of Stettin in the Print Kabinett (Museum of Prints and Drawings) in Berlin.

21 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Honnef/Weschenfelder/Haberland 1992, p. 327, no. 1-5, ill. It is not exactly clear when Jan van Call made his trips in Germany, France, Switzerland and Italy, but he probably already made a trip along the Rhine as early as 1677, when he still was located in Nijmegen. Not all his topographical drawings are made after nature, some are after prints of other artists (f.e. Matthias Merian I). Vis 2012, p. 33. Pieter Vis counted 34 German towns depicted (prints and drawings) by Van Call (Vis 2012, p. 12).

22 [Gerson 1942/1983] Sketchbook in Haus der Rheinischen Heimat [= Kölnisches Stadtmuseum, RvL]; Rahtgens 1910. [Van Leeuwen 2017] The name of the artist derived from the sketchbook is ‘J. Finckenbaum’, traditionally identified with Johannes Vinckboons. Although many authors maintained this identification (f.e. Dattenberg 1967, p. 336-343), M.D. Ozinga already rejected this in 1940 and proposed an attribution of the sketchbook to Justus Vinckboons (Thieme/Becker 1907-1950, vol. 34 [1940], p. 388), which is possible but still hypothetical, since we hardly have knowledge of Justus Vinckboons as a draughtsman. Gorissen believed the artist was neither identical to Johannes nor Justus Vinckboons and assumed that he came from the Upper Rhine, possibly from Frankfurt. He dated the sketchbook c. 1672. The drawing book was published in 1980 (Binding 1980).

23 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On Saftleven: Schulz 1982.

24 [Gerson 1942/193] Sterck/Moller/De Klerk 1927-1940, vol. 9 (1936), p. 300. [Van Leeuwen 2017] In translation: If someone likes to live softly (‘zacht leven’ alludes to Saftleven or Sachtleven, the name of the artist), to get some air if he wants, he can stay home nice and quietly [because with these drawings] Can art, Can the hand of this wanderer, Follow me [= nature] until the Neckar river.

25 [Van Leeuwen 2017] M. de Kinkelder doubts that Robert Griffier’s birth date mentioned in Houbraken (7 October 1688) is correct, supposing this must have been the birth date of Jan Griffier II (this information is adopted in Saur 1992- , vol. 62 [2009], p. 90). Meanwhile the baptism date of Jan Griffier II (20 July 1698) has been retrieved in the Municipal Archive in Amsterdam (Ecartico).

26 [Van Leeuwen 2017] On the Schüz family: Gerson 1942/1983, p. 321; Frankfurt am Main 1992; Honnef/Weschenfelder/Haberland 1992.

27 [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson states here that De La Fargue made decoration paintings after Saftleven for his English patron. However, De la Fargue made these for Gerard Hoet II in The Hague, not for his patron Sir Joseph Yorke, the later Baron Dover, who was the British ambassador in The Hague. One scene by La Fargue (RKD 103322) is modelled directly after Saftleven’s Rhine landscape in Museum Boijmans van Beuningen in Rotterdam. For Sir Joseph Yorke, Saftleven made 16 drawings of the funeral procession of Princess Anna of Hanover, which were engraved by Simon Fokke two years later. From these drawings, the location of 10 is known (six in the Municipal Archive in The Hague and four in the De Grez collection, Brussels). The remaining six drawings were auctioned: one in 1876, two in 1891 and three in 1914 (communication Charles Dumas, July 2016).

28 [Gerson 1942/1983] Haverkorn van Rijsewijk 1893, p. 47-50. [Van Leeuwen 2017] Gerson 1946.

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